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  • Government-donor relations in Sierra Leone: who is in the driving seat?

    Harris, David; Conteh, F.M. (2020)
    Since the cessation of conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has experienced extraordinary levels of involvement from Western donors. Paradoxically, while relationships are often portrayed on the ground as strong with significant donor influence, our research shows considerable fluidity in individual and institutional relationships. The article disaggregates donor-government relations at various levels over a short but crucial period, 2010-16, asking in each case who occupies the driving seat. In so doing, the article interrogates the concept of ‘extraversion’, investigating to what extent government - and indeed donors - has space in which to manoeuvre and how and why government and donors act as they do in this space. The period 2010-16 is of particular interest due to extreme iron ore price volatility and the Ebola epidemic of 2014–15. The article adds much-needed critique and empirical evidence to the debate on donor influence and ‘extraversion’.
  • Men’s reflections on their body image at different life stages: A thematic analysis of interview accounts from middle-aged men

    Malik, Mohammed; Grogan, S.; Cole, J.; Gough, B. (2019)
    This study investigates how men’s body image develops over time. 14 men aged between 45 and 67 years completed in-depth interviews where they discussed their body image since childhood, prompted in some cases by photographs of themselves at different ages that they brought to the interviews. Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. From the participants’ accounts it was evident that body concerns did not steadily improve or worsen, but waxed and waned over time. Results are discussed in relation to understanding changing body concerns in men’s lives, and the implications of these for future research and practice.
  • Le roi et sa famille: les deux femmes de Louis-Philippe

    Price, Munro (Somogy Editions d'Art, 2018-10)
  • Does the bilingual advantage extend to trilingualism?

    Guðmundsdóttir, Margaret D.; Lesk, Valerie E. (Taylor and Francis, 2019)
    This study examined whether the proposed bilingual advantage in inhibitory control and working memory can be extended to a trilingual advantage, and assessed any age-related effects on a continuum in young adults to older adults. Trilinguals, bilinguals and monolinguals’ performance on the Simon task and a numerical version of the N-back task was compared. On the Simon task, there was no language group difference observed, although the data show an age-related decline in inhibitory control only in trilinguals, but not in bilinguals or monolinguals. No clear language group differences were observed between trilinguals and bilinguals on the N-back task, however an overall trilingual and bilingual disadvantage, compared to monolinguals, was observed. Together the results suggest that managing two or three languages, compared to just one, may have a negative impact on inhibitory control and working memory performance. Importantly, they highlight the need to control for a possible confounding effect of including trilinguals/multilinguals in bilingual cohorts and to ensure that participants in monolingual cohorts speak only one language.
  • Personalised nutrition technologies and innovations: A cross-national survey of registered dietitians

    Abrahams, Mariëtte; Frewer, L.J.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara (2019)
    Background: Commercial technology-enabled personalised nutrition is undergoing 19 rapid growth, yet uptake in dietetics practice remains low. This survey sought the opinions 20 of dietetics practitioners on personalised nutrition and related technologies to understand 21 facilitators and barriers to its application in practice. 22 Method: A cross-section of Registered Dietitians were recruited in the US, UK, 23 Australia, Canada, Israel, Mexico, Portugal, Spain and South Africa. The questionnaire 24 sought views on risk of genetic technology, ethics of genetic testing, usefulness of new 25 personalised nutrition technologies, entrepreneurism and the perceived importance of 26 new technologies to dietetics. Validated scales were included to assess personality (Big 27 5) and self-efficacy (NGSEI). The survey was available in English, Spanish and 28 Portuguese. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with 29 integration of nutrigenetic testing into practice, and to identify factors associated with the 30 perceived importance of bio, information and mobile technologies to dietetic practice. 31 Results: A total of 323 responses (response rate 19.7%) were analysed. Dietetic 32 practitioners who had integrated personalised nutrition technology into practice perceived 33 technologies to be less risky (P=0.02), biotechnology to be more important (P<0.01), and 34 professional skills to be less important (P=0.04) than those who had not. They were also 35 more likely to see themselves as entrepreneurs (P<0.01) and to perceive lower risks to be 36 associated with technology (P<0.01). Practitioners of nutrigenetics were lower on 37 neuroticism (P<0.01) and higher on self-efficacy (P<0.01), extraversion (P<0.01) and 38 agreeableness (P<0.01). Higher perceived importance of biotechnology to dietetic 39 practice was associated with higher perceived usefulness of omics tests (P<0.01). 40 Perceived importance of information technology was associated with perceived 41 importance of biotechnology (P<0.01). Mobile technologies were perceived as important 42 by dietitians with the highest level of education (P=0.02). 43 Conclusions: For dietitians to practice technology-enabled personalised nutrition, 44 training will be required to enhance self-efficacy, address risk perceived to be associated 45 with new technologies and to instil an entrepreneurial mindset.
  • Just Mothers: criminal justice, care ethics and “disabled” offenders

    Rogers, Chrissie (2019)
    Research with prisoners’ families is limited in the context of learning difficulties/disabilities (LD) and autism spectrum. Life-story interviews with mothers reveal an extended period of emotional and practical care labour, as the continuous engagement with their son’s education and experiences of physical and emotional abuse are explored. Prior to their son’s incarceration, mothers spoke of stigma and barriers to support throughout their childrearing, as well as limited or absent preventative/positive care practices. Subsequently prisons and locked wards seem to feature as a progression. Mothers have experienced abuse; physical and/or emotional, as well as lives that convey accounts of failure. Not their failure, but that of the systems. A care ethics model of disability assists an analysis of the narratives where care-less spaces are identified. Interrelated experiences merging emotional responses to extended mothering, the external forces of disabilism and destructive systems, lead to proposing a rehumanising of care practices within for example, education and the criminal justice system.
  • Male eating disorders: experiences of food, body and self

    Delderfield, Russell (2018-12)
    This book takes a novel approach to the study of male eating disorders – an area that is often dominated by clinical discourses. The study of eating disorders in men has purportedly suffered from a lack of dedicated attention to personal and socio-cultural aspects. Delderfield tackles this deficiency by spotlighting a set of personal accounts written by a group of men who have experiences of disordered eating. The text presents critical interpretations that aim to situate these experiences in the social and cultural context in which these disorders occur. This discursive work is underpinned by an eclectic scholarly engagement with social psychology and sociology literature around masculinities, embodiment and fatness, belonging, punishment, stigma, and control; leading to understandings about relationships with food, body and self. This is undertaken with a reflexive element, as the personal intersects with the professional. This text will appeal to students, scholars and clinicians in social sciences, humanities, and healthcare studies, including public health.
  • Reflective practice: writing and professional development

    Bolton, G.; Delderfield, Russell (2018-02)
    Reflecting thoughtfully on your work is vital for improving your own self-awareness, effectiveness and professional development. This newly updated fifth edition of Gillie Bolton’s bestselling book explores reflective writing as a creative and dynamic process for this critical enquiry. New to this edition: An expanded range of exercises and activities A new emphasis on using e-portfolios Further guidance on reflective writing assignments Enhanced discussion of reflection as a key employability skill Additional online resources This popular book has been used worldwide in various disciplines including education, social work, business and management, medicine and healthcare and is essential reading for students and professionals seeking to enhance their reflective writing skills and to examine their own practice in greater critical depth.
  • The person-centred approach in maths skills development: examining a case of good practice

    Delderfield, Russell; McHattie, Helen (2018-04)
    The development of students’ mathematics skills in higher education is often the topic of professional debate in learning development circles. Less prevalent are discussions taking place around the interpersonal dynamics that occur during one-to-one (tutorial) sessions. This case study explores these dynamics. It arose from the continuing professional development activities of an adviser (learning developer) at a UK university. As a result of recording one-to-one mathematics sessions it was found that the adviser was unconsciously competent and that, although she was adept at identifying her areas for development, she struggled to articulate the considerable strengths of her practice. We wanted to find a way of describing, analysing and evaluating her competence, and alighted upon the person-centred approach. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present the synthesis of maths skills practice with this approach in the hope of stimulating further research and professional conversation in the learning development community. The report offers novel idiographic findings through the application of person-centred theory to one practitioner’s experience of delivering maths skills development. We conclude by suggesting that focusing on the relationship between adviser and student can help to create conditions conducive to successful one-to-one education.
  • India and Pakistan: An Analysis of the Conventional Military Strategic Relationship

    Bluth, Christoph; Lee, U.R. (International Conference on Economics and Security 2019, 2019-06-27)
  • Alcohol, empathy, and morality: acute effects of alcohol consumption on affective empathy and moral decision-making

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Howard, I.S.; Terbeck, S. (Springer, 2019)
    Rationale: Hypothetical moral dilemmas, pitting characteristically utilitarian and non-utilitarian outcomes against each other, have played a central role in investigations of moral decision-making. Preferences for utilitarian over non-utilitarian responses have been explained by two contrasting hypotheses; one implicating increased deliberative reasoning, and the other implicating diminished harm aversion. In recent field experiments, these hypotheses have been investigated using alcohol intoxication to impair both social and cognitive functioning. These studies have found increased utilitarian responding, arguably as a result of alcohol impairing affective empathy. Objectives: The present research expands existing investigations by examining the acute effects of alcohol on affective empathy and subsequent moral judgments in traditional vignettes and moral actions in virtual reality, as well as physiological responses in moral dilemmas. Methods: Participants (N = 48) were administered either a placebo or alcohol in one of two dosages; low or moderate. Both pre- and post intervention, participants completed a moral action and moral judgment task alongside behavioural measures of affective empathy. Results: Higher dosages of alcohol consumption resulted in inappropriate empathic responses to facial displays of emotion, mirroring responses of individuals high in trait psychopathy, but empathy for pain was unaffected. Whilst affective empathy was influenced by alcohol consumption in a facial responding task, both moral judgments and moral actions were unaffected. Conclusions: These results suggest that facets, beyond or in addition to deficits in affective empathy, might influence the relationship between alcohol consumption and utilitarian endorsements.
  • The experimental psychology of moral enhancement: We should if we could, but we can't

    Terbeck, S.; Francis, Kathryn B. (2018-10-16)
    In this chapter we will review experimental evidence related to pharmacological moral enhancement. Firstly, we will present our recent study in which we found that a drug called propranolol could change moral judgements. Further research, which also investigated this, found similar results. Secondly, we will discuss the limitations of such approaches, when it comes to the idea of general “human enhancement”. Whilst promising effects on certain moral concepts might be beneficial to the development of theoretical moral psychology, enhancement of human moral behaviour in general – to our current understanding – has more side-effects than intended effects, making it potentially harmful. We give an overview of misconceptions when taking experimental findings beyond the laboratory and discuss the problems and solutions associated with the psychological assessment of moral behaviour. Indeed, how is morality “measured” in psychology, and are those measures reliable?
  • Virtual morality in the helping professions: Simulated action and resilience

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Howard, I.S.; Terbeck, S. (2018-08)
    Recent advances in virtual technologies have allowed the investigation of simulated moral actions in aversive moral dilemmas. Previous studies have employed diverse populations to explore these actions, with little research considering the significance of occupation on moral decision‐making. For the first time, in this study we have investigated simulated moral actions in virtual reality made by professionally trained paramedics and fire service incident commanders who are frequently faced with and must respond to moral dilemmas. We found that specially trained individuals showed distinct empathic and related personality trait scores and that these declined with years of experience working in the profession. Supporting the theory that these professionals develop resilience in moral conflict, reduced emotional arousal was observed during virtual simulations of a distressing dilemma. Furthermore, trained professionals demonstrated less regret following the execution of a moral action in virtual reality when compared to untrained control populations. We showed that, contrary to previous research, trained individuals made the same moral judgements and moral actions as untrained individuals, though showing less arousal and regret. In the face of increasing concerns regarding empathy decline in health care professionals, we suggest that the nature of this decline is complex and likely reflects the development of a necessary emotional resilience to distressing events.
  • Simulating moral actions: An investigation of personal force in virtual moral dilemmas

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Terbeck, S.; Briazu, R.A.; Haines, A.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Howard, I.S. (2017-10-24)
    Advances in Virtual Reality (VR) technologies allow the investigation of simulated moral actions in visually immersive environments. Using a robotic manipulandum and an interactive sculpture, we now also incorporate realistic haptic feedback into virtual moral simulations. In two experiments, we found that participants responded with greater utilitarian actions in virtual and haptic environments when compared to traditional questionnaire assessments of moral judgments. In experiment one, when incorporating a robotic manipulandum, we found that the physical power of simulated utilitarian responses (calculated as the product of force and speed) was predicted by individual levels of psychopathy. In experiment two, which integrated an interactive and life-like sculpture of a human into a VR simulation, greater utilitarian actions continued to be observed. Together, these results support a disparity between simulated moral action and moral judgment. Overall this research combines state-of-the-art virtual reality, robotic movement simulations, and realistic human sculptures, to enhance moral paradigms that are often contextually impoverished. As such, this combination provides a better assessment of simulated moral action, and illustrates the embodied nature of morally-relevant actions.
  • Virtual morality: Transitioning from moral judgment to moral action?

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, C.; Howard, I.S.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Anderson, G.; Terbeck, S. (2016-10-10)
    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses±killing one in order to save many others±when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour.
  • Advice on Portfolio Development in the Eastern Partnership region and Russia: implications of Ukraine conflicts

    Greene, Owen J.; Morris, K.; Paasiaro, M. (2015-02-01)
    Sida requested the Helpdesk to review and analyse the direct and indirect implications of the conflict in Ukraine in 2014 for the portfolio of programmes supported by Sida in the Eastern Partnership Region (EaP) and in Russia; taking into account the Results Strategies for Sweden’s support to these regions and countries.
  • Examining Resilience Related Initiatives and Programmes in the Horn of Africa

    Greene, Owen J.; Svensson, N.; Midgely, T.; Auma, E. (2015-11)
    The Helpdesk was requested by Sida in July 2015 to undertake a desk study and mapping exercise to feed in relevant and updated information related to policy frameworks, ongoing programming, and future initiatives currently discussed to better inform Sida’s planned and on-going resilience focus. Sida requested that the study should pay particular attention to regional initiatives (including for example relevant IGAD initiatives), but should also include a mapping of relevant policy platforms, as well as planned and on-going programmes relevant for the Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and South Sudan country contexts.
  • Human Security in Mali

    Greene, Owen J. (2015-10)
    The context in Mali has changed considerably in the last few years. Progress on poverty eradication, growth and democratization was stalled as conflict erupted in 2012 but resumed in 2013 and is now slowly getting back on track. A preliminary agreement was signed in 2013 setting the frame for peace talks that are still on-going with Algeria as chief mediator. In spite of these negotiations, violent clashes and attacks by armed groups continue in the northern regions of the country. The post-conflict setting in Mali has created new challenges for the Swedish development cooperation portfolio.

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