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  • Dual-use nano-neurotechnology: An assessment of the implications of trends in science and technology

    Nixdorff, K.; Borisova, T.; Komisarenko, S.; Dando, Malcolm R. (2018-11)
    The chemical and biological nonproliferation regime stands at a watershed moment, when failure seems a real possibility. After the unsuccessful outcome of the 2016 Eighth Review Conference, the future of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention is uncertain. As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) approaches its Fourth Review Conference in 2018, it has almost completed removing the huge stocks of chemical weapons, but it now faces the difficult organizational task of moving its focus to preventing the reemergence of chemical weapons at a time when the international security situation appears to be increasingly more difficult and dangerous. In this article, we assess the current and near-term state (5–10 years) and impact of three related areas of science and technology that could be of dual-use concern: targeted delivery of agents to the central nervous system (CNS), particularly by means of nanotechnology; direct impact of nanomaterials on synaptic functions in the CNS; and neuronal circuits in the brain that might be targeted by those with hostile intent. We attempt to assess the implications of our findings, particularly for the consideration of the problem of state-level interest in so-called nonlethal incapacitating chemical agents for law enforcement at the CWC Review Conference in 2018, but also more generally for the longer-term future of the chemical and biological nonproliferation regime.
  • Toward a Romanian version of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire–R21 for children and adolescents (CTFEQr21): Preliminary psychometric analysis and relation with body composition

    Steff, M.; Verney, J.; Marinau, M.; Perte, S.; Pereira, B.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Drapeau, V.; Chaput, J.P.; Courteix, D.; Thivel, D. (2019)
    Purpose. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Romanian version of the three factor eating questionnaire-r21 for children and adolescents (ctfeqr21), and to assess its psychometric properties and factor structure. Associations between this version of the ctfeqr21 and anthropometric measures as well as body composition were also examined. Design and methods. 153 children and adolescents (68 boys and 95 girls; 10.8 ± 3.5 years) took part in this study (bmi of 17.7 ± 3.1 kg/m²). The participants were first interviewed to ascertain their understanding of the ctfeq-r21 and were then asked to self-complete the questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and body composition assessed using bio impedance analyzers (Tanita MC 780). Results. The CTFEQr21 showed satisfactory internal consistency (cronbach’s α=0.78). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.55 for CR, 0.75 for UE, and 0.76 for EE separately. UE and EE were found to be significantly correlated (r=0.54, p<0.05). The three factors explained 43% of the total variance. Correlation between CR, UE and EE with body weight, BMI and FFM were significant but low to moderate with coefficients ranging from 0.20 to 0.37. The higher the CR, UE and EE tertiles, the higher the weight, fat mass (kg) and fat-free mass values. Conclusions. According to the psychometric analysis of the questionnaire, the proposed version of the CTFEQr21 proposed here is a satisfactory tool to assess eating behaviors in Romanian child population that remains to be further developed.
  • Validation of a child version of the three-factor eating questionnaire in a Canadian sample - a psychometric tool for the evaluation of eating behaviour

    Yabsley, J.; Gunnell, K.E.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Drapeau, V.; Thivel, D.; Adamo, K.B.; Chaput, J-P. (2019)
    Objective: To examine score validity and reliability of a Child version of the 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (CTFEQ-R21) in a sample of Canadian children and adolescents and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and food/taste preferences. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: School-based. Subjects: 158 children, 63 boys (11.5±1.6 years) and 95 girls (11.9±1.9 years). Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CTFEQ-R21 was best represented by four factors with item 17 removed (CFFEQ-R20) representing Cognitive Restraint (CR), Cognitive Uncontrolled Eating (UE 1), External Uncontrolled Eating (UE 2), and Emotional Eating (EE) and accounted for 41.2% of the total common variance, with good scale reliability. ANOVAs revealed that younger children reported higher UE 1 scores and CR scores compared to older children, and boys who reported high UE 1 scores had significantly higher BMI Z-scores. Children with high UE 1 scores reported a greater preference for high protein and fat foods, and high-fat savoury (HFSA) and high-fat sweet (HFSW) foods. Higher preference for high protein, fat, and carbohydrate foods, and HFSA, HFSW, and low-fat savoury foods was found in children with high UE 2 scores. Conclusions: This study suggests that the CFFEQ-R20 can be used to measure eating behaviour traits and associations with BMI z-scores and food/taste preferences in Canadian children and adolescents. Future research is needed to examine the validity of the questionnaire in larger samples and in other geographical locations, as well as the inclusion of extraneous variables such as parental eating or socio-economic status.
  • Bakhtin’s chronotope, connotations, & discursive psychology: Towards a richer interpretation of experience

    Cresswell, J.; Sullivan, Paul W. (2018)
    In this paper, we draw on the Bakhtinian concept of chronotope to make the theoretical argument that the turn to embodiment can be supplemented through a consideration of connotation in discursive psychology. We use Billig’s conception of linguistic repression as a test-case as to how connotation can supplement discursive analysis, but using our own interview material to do so. From establishing the case that connotation, understood through the lens of chronotope, is potentially of vital interest to discursive psychology, we move to drawing out three implications for this for doing qualitative research differently. First of all, we suggest that researchers need to feel the chronotope of the interview to manage its connotations in vivo. Secondly, we draw attention to the role of the absent other in everyday speech and how this absent other can be analysed differently to a typical discourse analysis - as layering connotations into speech. Finally, we draw attention to the hermeneutic attitude of earnest irony when doing research as a further means of generating as well as managing connotations.
  • Preventing chemical weapons as sciences converge

    Crowley, Michael J.A.; Shang, Lijun; Dando, Malcolm R. (2018-11)
    Stark illustrations of the dangers from chemical weapons can be seen in attacks using toxic industrial chemicals and sarin against civilians and combatants in Syria and toxic industrial chemicals in Iraq, as well as more targeted assassination operations in Malaysia and the United Kingdom, employing VX and novichok nerve agents, respectively. Concerns about such malign applications of chemical technology are exacerbated by the unstable international security environment and the changing nature of armed conflict, “where borderlines between war, civil war, large-scale violations of human rights, revolutions and uprisings, insurgencies and terrorism as well as organized crime are blurred” (1). It is thus essential that the global community regularly review the nature and implications of developments in chemistry, and its convergence with the life and associated sciences, and establish appropriate measures to prevent their misuse. With the parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) convening a Review Conference to address such issues beginning 21 November 2018, we highlight important scientific aspects (2)
  • Fictional first memories

    Akhtar, Shazia; Justice, L.V.; Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, M.A. (2018)
    In a large-scale survey, 6,641 respondents provided descriptions of their first memory and their age when they encoded that memory, and they completed various memory judgments and ratings. In good agreement with many other studies, where mean age at encoding of earliest memories is usually found to fall somewhere in the first half of the 3rd year of life, the mean age at encoding here was 3.2 years. The established view is that the distribution around mean age at encoding is truncated, with very few or no memories dating to the preverbal period, that is, below about 2 years of age. However, we found that 2,487 first memories (nearly 40% of the entire sample) dated to an age at encoding of 2 years and younger, with 893 dating to 1 year and younger. We discuss how such improbable, fictional first memories could have arisen and contrast them with more probable first memories, those with an age at encoding of 3 years and older.
  • BRICS and Emerging Economies: an assessment

    Anand, Prathivadi B.; Comim, F.; Fennell, S. (2019-04-18)
    The aim of this chapter is a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of the emergence of BRICS. We begin with an examination of emergence of BRICS showing that BRICS have been members of the top 15 largest economies in the world since 1960. In purchasing power parity terms, by 2015, BRICS have equalled G7 countries in terms of the share of global output. Various possible explanatory factors of their growth are examined. Though BRICS account for nearly a half of global output growth, in terms of real per capita income, BRICS have a long way to go. There are many challenges to BRICS in terms of the levels of income and wealth inequalities, the educational inequalities as measured in terms of education-Gini and the quality of their infrastructure notwithstanding the massive investments being made remains inadequate. We also analyse the nine BRICS summits so far and the text analysis of these declarations suggests that such summits are becoming more formal and focused on specific policy outcomes and creation of new institutions for deepening multilateral co-operation. The chapter ends with an analysis of global governance issues and four possible future scenarios of BRICS.
  • Extractive economies, institutions and development: implications for BRICS and Emerging Economies

    Anand, Prathivadi B. (2019-04-18)
    Extractive economies can use the natural resource dividend for infrastructure and sustainable development though this involves overcoming many challenges. The original contribution of this chapter is to see BRICS as natural resource rich economies that have not yet signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). The paper reports original analysis of relationship between resource dependence and human development index for the period 1990 to 2015 which suggests that non-resource rich countries tend to have higher values of HDI than resource rich countries. Using in depth case studies of two countries that have joined EITI (namely Norway and Mongolia) and two emerging economies that have not joined the EITI (Botswana and Chile) and one of the BRICS (namely Brazil), this chapter highlights some of the successes and challenges in using the natural resource wealth to transform economic and social development outcomes. Governance indicators of these cases suggest that transparency initiatives can be helpful but they should be part of a larger programme of transparency and institutional development. The analysis highlights that the links between extractive economies, policies, institutions and human development outcomes are complex and require long term policies and commitments. Three specific policy issues for BRICS are identified.
  • Governance and economics of smart cities: opportunities and challenges

    Anand, Prathivadi B.; Navio-Marco, J. (2018-11)
    This editorial introduction to this special issue provides an overview and a conceptual framework of governance and economics of smart cities. We begin with a discussion of the background to smart cities and then it focuses on the key challenges for consideration in smart city economics. Here it is argued that there are four dimensions to smart city economics: the first is regarding the scale of global market for smart cities; the second issue concerns data to be used for smart city projects; the third concerns market competition and structure and the fourth concerns the impact on local economy. Likewise, smart city governance framework has to be considered a layered and multi-level concept focusing on issues of transparency and accountability to the citizens.
  • Exploring eleven year old children's understanding of well-being using well-being maps: Commonalities and divergences across areas of varying levels of deprivation and ethnic diversity in an English Qualitative Study

    McAuley, Colette (2018)
    The aim of this paper is to explore eleven year old children's understanding of well-being through their completion of Well-Being Maps and subsequent interviews on their content. The children were asked to describe the people, places and things which they viewed as important to their sense of well-being. The subsequent interviews explored their rationalisations for their choices. Ninety-two eleven year old children attending four schools with varying levels of deprivation and ethnic diversity took part in the study. This is the first section of an English study which is a part of the Multi-National Children's Understanding of Well-Being Study involving 26 countries which aims to explore how children conceptualise and experience well-being from a comparative and global perspective. Commonalities and divergences in the English children's responses were explored. Across the entire sample of 92 children, there were clear commonalities. Relationships with family, predominantly parents, were viewed as very important. The reasons provided were consistent love and affection; constant support, encouragement and protection; fun to be with. The duration of this quality of parent-child interaction appeared to be the key. Trust and a sense of security were the result. Relationships with friends were deemed important by over two thirds of the children. The qualities of these relationships mirrored those with the parents with a sense of trust and security being present. Where places and activities were included on their maps, they were often linked to important relationships. Activities appeared to be important in acknowledging the relationship but also maintaining it. Activities were also valued by the children for skill development. There were some differences across the sample with relationships with friends and grandparents being more reported as important in the two areas of high deprivation, irrespective of ethnic diversity. The level of material possessions and holidays abroad were much more frequently reported in the school serving the low deprivation area. At times, the explanations for differences appeared to be an interplay of socio-economic factors and religious and cultural traditions. Suggestions for further research on children's perspectives on factors important to their well-being are made.
  • Act now to close chemical-weapons loophole

    Shang, Lijun; Crowley, Michael J.A.; Dando, Malcolm R. (2018-10-18)
    As the Fourth Review Conference of the Chemical Weapons Convention meets next month, state parties need to address mounting concerns about the potential development and use of law-enforcement weapons involving chemical agents that act on the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Banking in shadows: evidence from emerging economies, China and India

    Arora, Rashmi; Zhang, Q. (2018)
    Recent years have seen the increasing concern for the flourish of shadow banking in China and India. In this paper, we aim to get a better understanding of the differences in trends and investigate the factors leading to the rise of shadow banking in these two major emerging economies. We find that financial exclusion is a common factor leading to the rise of shadow banking in China and India. While financial reform has taken place in India, financial repressive policies still prevail in China. Although several regulatory measures have been adopted in India and China, the size of the shadow banking in these two countries remains underestimated. Thus, streamlining and enhancing data collection is a key priority for both India and China. We also argue that the regulation in both countries should be more activity focused rather than sector or entity based, and it should be at par with banks. As shadow banks provide last mile connectivity and enhance financial inclusion, a balanced approach is required keeping in view both benefits and costs of the shadow banking system.
  • Social and political elements of inclusive practice

    Solas, John (2016-02-25)
    Laying claim to highest attainable standard of health is a human right. Support for this right is provided by the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations [UN], 1948) and a small number of legally binding international treaties. Among the most important of these for health are the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (UN, 1966a) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (UN, 1989). Both these human rights treaties are legally binding for those countries that have ratified them. The ICESCR, in particular, articulates a comprehensive view of the obligations of state members of the United Nations (UN) to respect, protect and fulfil the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health – known as ‘the right to health’. It provides for both freedoms, such as the right to be free from non-consensual and uninformed medical treatment, medical experimentation, or forced HIV testing, as well as entitlements. These entitlements include the right to a system of protection on an equal basis for all, a system of prevention, treatments and control of disease, access to essential medicines, and services for sexual and reproductive health; and access to information and education about health for everyone. The Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ECSCR) monitors compliance with these provisions. Most states have ratified the ICESCR, and all but two (Somalia and the US) have ratified the CRC.
  • Communication within the organisation

    Solas, John (2015-12-10)
    Effective and efficient healthcare not only depends on good interpersonal communication but also on the ability of organisations to communicate successfully and professionally. Yet organisations can become entrenched in rules, regulations and expected behaviours that stifle creative responses to work situations. Deep-seated bureaucracy can alienate the personal, and is made even more challenging if the organisation has multi-sites. This chapter will examine the many varied structures of organisation, and how communication flow within organisations can limit or expand inclusion of staff members within its boundaries. This chapter offers several barriers to good organisational communication and suggests ways these hurdles can be overcome. The ethics of healthcare practice is discussed in relation to the effect on the individual and the organisation, highlighting how both parties could respond to avoid conflict, clash and threats to professionalism. Above all, this chapter emphasises how open and honest personcentred communication in an organisation can lead to healthy outcomes for staff and patients alike.
  • Prisoner capture: welfare, lawfare and warfare in Latin America’s overcrowded prisons

    Macaulay, Fiona (2018)
    This chapter focuses on the forms of legality and illegality produced by, and within, prison systems in Latin America where prison populations have risen five-fold, leading to a serious structural crisis in the criminal justice system. The chapter develops the concept of “prisoner capture”, a double-sided phenomenon of illegality in the state’s practices of detention, on the one hand, and informal, or parallel, governance exercised by those that it detained, on the other. State authorities held tens of thousands of people in extended and legally unjustifiable pretrial detention, and frequently denied convicted prisoners their legal rights, including timely release. This officially sanctioned form of kidnapping created such overcrowding and under-investment in prisons that national, constitutional, and international minimum norms on detention standards were routinely, systematically and grossly violated. These multiple illegalities on the part of the state in turn encouraged the emergence of prisoner self-defence and self-governance organizations. This resulted in “prisoner capture” of a different kind, when inmates took over the day-to-day ordering of prison life. In turn, this produced a parallel normative and pseudo-legal world in which inmates adjudicated on and disciplined other inmates in the absence of state officials within the prison walls. The chapter further examines what the study of Latin American prisons and penal practices can add to the field of socio-legal studies in the region and the implications of this phenomenon of prison capture for the dominant socio-legal literature on prisons and imprisonment.
  • Eco-sectarianism: From ecological disasters to sectarian violence in Syria

    Shahi, Afshin; Vachkova, M. (2018)
    This study introduces ‘eco-sectarianism’, which is a new concept that explains the relationship between sectarian violence and environmental pressures in divided societies in the Middle East. Against the backdrop of climate change, ‘eco-sectarianism’ poses a challenge to many fragmented and unequal societies where the sense of national consciousness is weak and nation-building projects are incomplete. This paper draws attention to the links between politicisation of sub-national identities and emerging ecological challenges in Syria.
  • Going Along to get Along: Victimization inc.

    Solas, John (2016)
    It has long been recognized that "when bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle" (Burke 1770, p. 146). In order words, all that is needed for evil to triumph is for good people to do nothing. Edmond Burke made the peril of inaction and dissociation in the midst of wrongdoing clear. When the need to act against victimisation arises, resistance is essential, and should not befall a brave few, for as Burke contended, there is safety in numbers. Despite Burke's advice, social psychological research (most notably by Latané and Darley 1970; Milgam 1974; Zimbardo, Banks and Jaffe 1973) has demonstrated the unreliability of unsolicited prosocial intervention into even the most glaring atrocities. Simply put, the numbers needed to ensure safety may not be there. While the reasons for inaction are both complex and manifold, they invariably point to a lack of supererogation and fiduciary responsibility. People look on rather than intervene either because they do not consider the fate of others their responsibility or business (Zimbardo 2007). Hence, are those who witness rather than contest victimisation innocent bystanders or accomplices? The answer has particular consequences for employees made victims of unscrupulous corporate supervisors, leaders, managers, and, most notably, their followers. This paper examines the moral question that inaction against victimisation in the corporate realm raises.
  • Financial sector development and smart cities: The Indian case

    Arora, Rashmi (2018-10)
    The paper examines the level of financial development of initial twenty shortlisted smart cities in India. • Results of the study revealed high inter-state and intra-state inequality as the cities with high FSI values and those with low FSI values are both located in the developed western and southern states. • A similar mixed picture emerges even for the less developed low income states such as Madhya Pradesh. • The study also highlighted large inter-state variations across the smart cities in financial development. • For a holistic approach to smart city development, a vibrant and developed financial sector is required.
  • Conscientious Objections to Corporate Wrongdoing

    Solas, John (2018)
    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about unethical conduct within corporate business, not least because of the scandalous behaviour of former chief executives at top blue chip companies such as Enron, Worldcom, Parmalat and Volkswagen. These scandals have not only threatened the privileged position of senior corporate employees but also the solvency of the companies they manage and lead. The high profile cases of corporate crime and corruption that occurred in the early 2000s together with the 2008 Wall Street bailouts (Sorokin 2010) and the growth in criminal prosecutions since (Garrett 2014) have raised the profile of business ethics to an unprecedented level. Greater public sensitivity towards and awareness about the unlawful and immoral conduct of firms in the United States and elsewhere, has created demand for organizations to become more accountable and socially responsible and prompted greater regulatory scrutiny. It has also served to highlight the embryonic (Ciulla 2005) and delimited (Freidland 2012) state of research and scholarship on business ethics, where the focus has tended to remain on leadership (Kellerman 2012). A neglected, though important, line of ethical enquiry concerns followership (Kellerman, 2008). Corporate wrongdoing would be less formidable and extensive if it was not aided and abetted. Two key questions arise. First, what prompts followers to support rather than oppose bad leaders? Second, what can be done to stem or at least curtail their allegiance to bad leaders?
  • Pathological Work Victimisation in Public Sector Organisations

    Solas, John (2015-06)
    Workers in public sector organisations might expect any threat to their physical and psychological safety and wellbeing to fall far short of any unreasonable risk. However, the evidence is by no means certain. One of the most persistent and prevalent organisational perils is work victimisation. A propensity towards this type of abuse in government organisations is most disturbing, since they remain a major employer, and hence, have a direct bearing on the occupational fates of a large and growing number of personnel. This paper provides a brief discussion of work victimisation and focuses attention one of its most unrepentant and enigmatic perpetrators, the corporate psychopath. The paper highlights some individual and institutional measures designed to enable employees to mitigate the risk of abuse by these victimisers.

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