Now showing items 1-20 of 1349

    • Demystifying case management in Aotearoa New Zealand: A scoping and mapping review

      Stretton, C.; Chan, W.Y.; Wepa, Dianne (2023-01)
      Background: Community-based case managers in health have been compared to glue which holds the dynamic needs of clients to a disjointed range of health and social services. However, case manager roles are difficult to understand due to poorly defined roles, confusing terminology, and low visibility in New Zealand. Aim: This review aims to map the landscape of case management work to advance workforce planning by clarifying the jobs, roles, and relationships of case managers in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Methods: Our scoping and mapping review includes peer-reviewed articles, grey literature sources, and interview data from 15 case managers. Data was charted iteratively until convergent patterns emerged and distinctive roles identified. Results: A rich and diverse body of literature describing and evaluating case management work in NZ (n = 148) is uncovered with at least 38 different job titles recorded. 18 distinctive roles are further analyzed with sufficient data to explore the research question. Social ecology maps highlight diverse interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Conclusions: Significant innovation and adaptations are evident in this field, particularly in the last five years. Case managers also known as health navigators, play a pivotal but often undervalued role in NZ health care, through their interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Their work is often unrecognised which impedes workforce development and the promotion of person-centered and integrated health care.
    • Developing and validating a school-based screening tool of Fundamental Movement Skills (FUNMOVES) using Rasch analysis

      Eddy, L.H.; Preston, N.; Mon-Williams, M.; Bingham, Daniel D.; Atkinson, J.M.C.; Ellingham-Khan, M.; Otteslev, A.; Hill, L.J.B. (2021-04)
      A large proportion of children are not able to perform age-appropriate fundamental movement skills (FMS). Thus, it is important to assess FMS so that children needing additional support can be identified in a timely fashion. There is great potential for universal screening of FMS in schools, but research has established that current assessment tools are not fit for purpose. To develop and validate the psychometric properties of a FMS assessment tool designed specifically to meet the demands of universal screening in schools. A working group consisting of academics from developmental psychology, public health and behavioural epidemiology developed an assessment tool (FUNMOVES) based on theory and prior evidence. Over three studies, 814 children aged 4 to 11 years were assessed in school using FUNMOVES. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate structural validity and modifications were then made to FUNMOVES activities after each study based on Rasch results and implementation fidelity. The initial Rasch analysis found numerous psychometric problems including multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, local dependency, and misfitting items. Study 2 showed a unidimensional measure, with acceptable internal consistency and no local dependency, but that did not fit the Rasch model. Performance on a jumping task was misfitting, and there were issues with disordered thresholds (for jumping, hopping and balance tasks). Study 3 revealed a unidimensional assessment tool with good fit to the Rasch model, and no further issues, once jumping and hopping scoring were modified. The finalised version of FUNMOVES (after three iterations) meets standards for accurate measurement, is free and able to assess a whole class in under an hour using resources available in schools. Thus FUNMOVES has the potential to allow schools to efficiently screen FMS to ensure that targeted support can be provided and disability barriers removed.
    • Exploring families' acceptance of wearable activity trackers: A mixed-methods study

      Creaser, A.V.; Hall, J.; Costa, S.; Bingham, Daniel D.; Clemes, S.A. (2022-03)
      The family environment plays a crucial role in child physical activity (PA). Wearable activity trackers (wearables) show potential for increasing children's PA; however, few studies have explored families' acceptance of wearables. This study investigated the acceptability of using wearables in a family setting, aligning experiences with components of the Technology Acceptance Model and Theoretical Domains Framework. Twenty-four families, with children aged 5-9 years, took part in a 5-week study, where all members were provided with a Fitbit Alta HR for 4 weeks. Acceptability was measured using weekly surveys and pre-post-questionnaires. Nineteen families participated in a focus group. Quantitative and qualitative data were integrated using the Pillar Integration Process technique. Pillars reflected (1) external variables impacting wearable use and PA and (2) wearable use, (3) ease of use, (4) usefulness for increasing PA and other health outcomes, (5) attitudes, and (6) intention to use a wearable, including future intervention suggestions. Families found the Fitbit easy to use and acceptable, but use varied, and perceived impact on PA were mixed, with external variables contributing towards this. This study provides insights into how wearables may be integrated into family-based PA interventions and highlights barriers and facilitators of family wearable use.
    • Assessing the impacts of creating active schools on organisational culture for physical activity

      Helme, Z.E.; Morris, J.L.; Nichols, Joanna E.; Chalkley, A.E.; Bingham, Daniel D.; McLoughlin, G.M.; Bartholomew, J.B.; Daly-Smith, Andrew (2022-12)
      National and international guidance recommends whole-school approaches to physical activity, but there are few studies assessing their effectiveness, especially at an organisational level. This study assesses the impact of the Creating Active School's (CAS) programme on organisational changes to physical activity provision. In-school CAS leads completed a 77-item questionnaire assessing school-level organisational change. The questionnaire comprised 19 domains aligned with the CAS framework and COM-B model of behaviour change. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests assessed the pre-to-nine-month change. >70% of schools (n = 53) pre-CAS had inadequate whole-school physical activity provision. After nine months (n = 32), CAS had a significant positive effect on organisational physical activity. The positive change was observed for: whole-school culture and ethos, teachers and wider school staff, academic lessons, physical education (PE) lessons, commute to/from school and stakeholder behaviour. This study provides preliminary evidence that CAS is a viable model to facilitate system-level change for physical activity in schools located within deprived areas of a multi-ethnic city. To confirm the results, future studies are required which adopt controlled designs combined with a holistic understanding of implementation determinants and underlying mechanisms.
    • The use of wearable activity trackers in schools to promote child and adolescent physical activity: A descriptive content analysis of school staff's perspectives

      Creaser, A.V.; Frazer, M.T.; Costa, S.; Bingham, Daniel D.; Clemes, S.A. (2022-10)
      The school environment is an ideal setting for promoting physical activity (PA). Wearable activity trackers (wearables) have previously been implemented, in research, as intervention tools within the school-environment. However, the large-scale use and acceptance of wearables, in schools, is unknown. This study distributed a cross-sectional survey to school staff to investigate the prevalence of child and adolescent wearable use in schools, including when and how they are used, and school staff's willingness to use them in the future (as implemented by school staff). This survey consisted of between 13 and 22 items, including closed-ended and open-ended questions. Closed-ended responses were displayed descriptively (wearable prevalence and characteristics), and open-ended qualitative responses were categorised using descriptive content analysis (how wearables are used). 1087 school staff provided valid responses. Of those, 896 (82.4%) had never used a wearable as a teaching or support tool for their students, and 120 (11%) currently used- and 71 (6.5%) had previously used- a wearable as a teaching or support tool for their students. When wearables were used, school staff implemented their use regularly and during physical education lessons or throughout the entire school day. Wearables were used to monitor or increase student's PA levels, or for student and staff educational purposes (e.g., academic learning, movement breaks). Most school staff were willing to use a wearable as a teaching or support tool to promote student's PA, and/or learning about PA, in the future. This study is the first study to explore the widescale use and acceptance of children and adolescents using wearables in the school-setting. Findings may inform the development of future school-based interventions and public health initiatives for physical activity promotion, using wearables.
    • Living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights into identity from the IDEAL cohort

      Stapley, S.; Pentecost, C.; Collins, R.; Quinn, Catherine; Dawson, E.; Morris, R.; Sabatini, S.; Thom, J.; Clare, L. (2023)
      The continuing COVID-19 pandemic and social restrictions have impacted on the cognitive decline and mental health of people with dementia. Social isolation and loss of activities due to social restrictions may also have implications as to sense of identity for people with dementia. As part of the INCLUDE (Identifying and Mitigating the Individual and Dyadic Impact of COVID-19 and Life Under Physical Distancing on People with Dementia and Carers) component of the IDEAL (Improving the Experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life) cohort study, the overall aim of this subtle realist qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of people with dementia on living through the COVID-19 pandemic within the context of the ‘post-vaccine’ period and the national lockdowns in England and Wales; and to determine perceived challenges to and facilitators of ‘living well’ during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond as restrictions were eased. In addition, the study findings are considered in relation to understandings of identity in dementia which the broader accounts of living through the pandemic have highlighted. Seven people with mild-to-moderate dementia were interviewed and themes were derived using framework analysis. Themes suggest interviewees' stoic acceptance of the pandemic and social restrictions but also fear of decline related to the temporality of their condition as well as loss of self-confidence to re-engage with the world. Interviewees managed threats to social identity by striving to maintain social and emotional connections, where the importance of a shared, social identity, particularly for people with young-onset dementia, was also apparent. Unlike in previous studies during the pandemic, the relevance of occupation for identity was observed, where maintaining previous or new activities or occupations was important to facilitate identity as well as to keep a sense of purpose. Therefore, as well as supporting people with dementia as the pandemic eases, future research into occupation and identity in dementia is of potential value.
    • The impact of dementia education on student paramedics preparedness to care, knowledge, confidence, and attitudes towards dementia: an analytic survey

      Jones, Danielle K.; Capstick, Andrea; Faisal, Muhammad; Frankland, Joe (British Paramedic Journal, 2023)
      Background: Paramedics play a vital role in the emergency health care of people living with dementia. People with dementia often have complex needs, posing challenges for paramedics. Paramedics often lack the confidence and skills to assess people with dementia appropriately and receive little, if any, dementia education. Aims: To evaluate the impact of dementia education on student paramedics preparedness to care, knowledge, confidence, and attitudes towards dementia. Methods: A 6-hour education programme on dementia was developed, implemented, and evaluated. A pre-test-post-test design using self-completion validated questionnaires was used to evaluate first year undergraduate student paramedics knowledge, confidence, and attitudes, towards dementia, as well as their preparedness to care for people with dementia. Results: Forty-three paramedic students attended the education programme with forty-one fully completed questionnaires being collected pre-training and thirty-two post-training. Students reported feeling significantly more preparedness to care for people with dementia after the education session (p
    • Organizational preventative strategies undertaken by dental clinics in Fiji during COVID-19 Pandemic: A qualitative study

      Kajal, K.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2023-01)
      Aim: This research aims to determine the organizational preventative strategies implemented by dental clinics in Fiji during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted amongst Dental Officers (Dos) and Dental Managers (DMs) who were working at government dental clinics, private dental clinics, and the School of Dentistry and Oral Health clinic (SDOH), in the Central Division, Fiji. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection through in-depth interviews via zoom. A manual thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Results: Thirty Dos and 17 DMs participated in this study. 16 themes emerged from data analysis: Major Strategies implemented, Staff perception about strategies in place, Triaging and Screening, Hand hygiene, Waiting room changes, Operational Capacity, Universal precautions, Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs), Disinfection and decontamination protocols, Ventilation, Sterilization, Pre-procedural mouth rinse, Waste management, Vaccination status, Bubbles and Adaptation of Protocols. The Dos were generally satisfied with the strategies implemented by the DMs. The DMs along with other Dos had used various guidance documents to devise tailor-made ones suited for dental clinics in Fiji. Conclusion: Various strategies were adopted from several guidelines and tailor-made Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each workplaces were developed by the various DMs. The majority of Dos were in favor of and satisfied with the protocols in place. Future research can be conducted in other divisions and include other health care professionals as well apart from just Dos and DMs.
    • Effectiveness and safety of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke in Latin American countries: A systematic review

      Gonzalez Aquines, Alejandro; Cordero-Perez, A.C.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Bochenek, T.; Gongora-Rivera, F. (2023-04)
      To describe the use, effectiveness, and safety outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in Latin American countries. Studies reporting MT outcomes for AIS in Latin America were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SciELO, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. Synthesis was conducted according to effectiveness (recanalization rates) and safety measures (mortality and functional independence at 90 days). Seventeen studies were included, mainly from public and university hospitals. MT utilization varied from 2.6% to 50.1%, while successful recanalization ranged from 63% to 95%. Functional independence 90 days after stroke (a modified Rankin scale score of 0 to 2) was achieved in less than 40% across most studies. Mortality rates were below 30%; studies with posterior circulation strokes reported higher mortality rates. The randomized trial reported better health outcomes for functional independence among patients in the MT group (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.41 - 3.69), favoring MT over standard care. The included studies had great methodological heterogeneity due to differences in study design, the MT time window, and stroke location. The only randomized trial showed improved functional independence and lower mortality rates with MT than with standard care. The rest of the studies reported similar findings to available literature. Efforts to improve stroke care are reflected in improved patient outcomes in the region. Future studies should consider standard time window criteria and reduce the risk of bias by including representative samples and comparison groups.
    • Designer benzodiazepines gidazepam and desalkygidazepam (bromonordiazepam): What do we know?

      Maskell, P.D.; Wilson, G.; Manchester, Kieran R. (2023)
      Designer benzodiazepines are one of the primary new psychoactive substances (NPS) threats around the world, being found in large numbers in post-mortem, driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases. Even though when compared to many other NPS types, such as opioids and cathinones, there are relatively few designer benzodiazepines being monitored. Recently a new NPS benzodiazepine has been reported in Europe, the USA and Canada, desalkygidazepam, also known as bromonordiazepam. This substance is a metabolite of the pro-drug gidazepam, a drug licenced for use in Ukraine and Russia under the name Gidazepam IC®. In the paper we review what is currently known about the use, pharmacology and analytical detection of gidazepam, its metabolite desalkygidazepam, and their other possible metabolites.
    • Intra and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Novel Isometric Test of Neck Strength.

      McBride, L.; James, Rob S.; Alsop, S.; Oxford, S.W. (2022-12)
      There is no single, universally accepted method of measuring isometric neck strength to inform exercise prescription and injury risk prediction. This study aimed to establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a commercially available fixed frame dynamometer in measuring peak isometric neck strength. A convenience sample of male (n = 16) and female (n = 20) university students performed maximal isometric contractions for flexion (Flex), extension (Ext), left- (LSF) and right-side flexion (RSF) in a quadruped position over three sessions. The intra-rater reliability results were good-to-excellent for both males (ICC = 0.83–0.90) and females (ICC = 0.86–0.94) and acceptable (CV < 15%) across all directions for both males and females. The inter-rater reliability results were excellent (ICC = 0.96–0.97) and acceptable (CV < 11.1%) across all directions. Findings demonstrated a significant effect for sex (p ≤ 0.05): males were stronger in all four directions, and a significant effect for direction (p ≤ 0.05): Ext tested stronger (193 N) than Flex (176 N), LSF (130 N) and RSF (125 N). The findings show that the VALD fixed frame dynamometer can reliably assess isometric neck strength and can provides reference values for healthy males and females.
    • Implementing seating guidelines into clinical practice and policy: A critical reflection and novel theory

      Samuriwo, Ray; Stephens, M.; Bartley, C.; Stubbs, N. (2022-11)
      Introduction: A significant proportion of healthcare that is delivered is wasteful, harmful and not evidence based. There are many wound care related guidelines, but their implementation in practice is variable. The Society of Tissue Viability (SoTV) published updated seating guidelines in 2017, but there is a lack of theoretical and conceptual clarity about how these guidelines are being utilised to inform clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to generate a theory that can be used to incorporate the SoTV seating guidelines into policy and clinical practice. Methods: We critically reflected on data from an evaluation study utilising systems-thinking approach, informed by implementation and safety science using wider literature as well as our expertise to generate a guideline implementation theory. Discussion: Factors that facilitate or hinder the incorporation of the SoTV guidelines into policy and practice were characterised. We conceptualised the implementation of these guidelines into policy and practice into a Translation or Implementation into Policy or Practice (TIPP) theory with distinct stages, that we called liminal spaces. Knowledge of the guidelines, and the agency or authority to effect change, are key factors in the translation of these guidelines into clinical practice. Conclusion: Our theory is that there are liminal spaces in the implementation trajectory of these guidelines into practice, which have their own characteristics. This theory provides a framework that can be used to underpin guidelines strategies to embed skin and wound care guidelines into policy and clinical practice in order to improve patient care.
    • Perceptions of public health nursing Team Leaders (TLs) and Team Supervisors (TSs) on nurse's development in Fiji

      Singh, S.S.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tamani, L. (2022-12)
      Nurse team leaders are responsible for contributing to managing the quality of service delivery and facility output of their nurses to ensure there is a high quality of care delivered by the health system. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of public health nursing Team Leaders (TLs) and public health nursing Team Supervisors (TSs) on nurses' development in Fiji. A qualitative study was used to gather information using in-depth phone interviews among TLs and TSs comprising Chief Midwifery Nursing Officer (CMNO), Director of Nursing (DON), Sub-divisional Nursing Managers (SDNMs), acting SDNMs and Nursing Manager (NM) at Central health division in Fiji. The data was collected through semi-structured open-ended questionnaires and were audio recorded. The data was analyzed using manual thematic analysis process. The study comprised of 26 participants, which included 10 TSs and 16 TLs. Four themes were identified for the results amongst TSs and TLs: ethical development; professional development; psychological development; and recommendations. However, nine sub- themes were identified for TSs and eight sub-themes were identified for the result amongst TLs. This study highlighted that TLs and TSs elaborated on the need for the ethical, professional, psychological development, nursing development and also on the importance of policies and guidelines. Professional ethics should be integrated into the Continuous Profession Development (CPD) points that are used to renew yearly nursing licenses as well as exposing the need for having competencies on professional ethics in nurses' logbooks. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth barriers.
    • "Once you get cancer you die. There is no way to get saved from cancer." A qualitative exploration of patients' perceptions towards cancer in Fiji

      Kumar, K.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-12)
      Understanding patients' perspective to get an insight into cancer, and how best the public health systems can battle with this disease is the way forward in this current world. This study aimed to explore patients' knowledge about common cancers, barriers to assessing cancer information and cancer preventative approaches in Fiji. The study used a qualitative method approach that was conducted among patients who attended Special Outpatients (SOPD) at the four selected health centres in Lautoka Subdivision, Fiji from 1st March to 30th April 2021. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used to guide in-depth interviews. These audio recordings were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All interview transcripts were read and similar words and phrases were assigned numbers which were grouped together to identify themes and sub themes. Twenty-eight patients took part in the in-depth interview and the responses were grouped into four themes including; cancer knowledge, diagnosis of cancer in a close friend/family, barriers of communication and optimizing cancer awareness. Patients' awareness about common cancers and cancer risk factors was low. Many barriers for cancer screening were highlighted including stigmatization, fear, worry, death, lack of information, herbal medicine use, lack of resources and delay in diagnosis. Awareness strategies highlighted by participants included community outreach programs, house to house visits, opportunistic screening, engagement of community health care workers and the concept of a cancer hub centre. It is evident that there is a range of views from patients towards cancer and it is important to understand these perceptions to better guide public health interventions concerning cancer. This puts more focus on the need to invest more in information, education, and communication material for public campaigns that target a variety of people for a wider reach.
    • Recruitment and retention of the health and social care digital workforce: A rapid review

      Prowse, Julie M.; Sutton, Claire; Randell, Rebecca (2022-12)
      The recruitment and retention of a digital health and social care workforce in the United Kingdom (UK) is challenging for several reasons that include the shortages of these employees in the National Health Service (NHS) and social care and the high demand for digital skills from other sectors (HEE, 2021a; NHS Providers, 2017). Brown (2022:7) notes that ‘high staff turnover rates, chronic recruitment and retention issues, and low morale are increasingly identified as major challenges for those working in social care’. Liu et al., (2019:5) in their report ‘NHS Informatics workforce in England: Phase 1 Project Report’ estimated that the size of the NHS informatics workforce in 2019 was between 40,640 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) to 53,936 FTEs based on electronic staff records. However, significant shortages in digital and information technology staff in health and social care were identified that pose a challenge. This rapid review examines the strategies used to recruit and retain the health and social care digital workforce and potential solutions to issues raised.
    • Planning the Radiology Workforce for Cancer Diagnostics

      Prowse, Julie M.; Sutton, Claire; Faisal, Muhammad; Elshehaly, Mai; McVey, Lynn; Montague, Jane; Randell, Rebecca (2022-12)
      The publication of the Delivery plan for tackling the COVID-10 backlog of elective care (NHSE/I, 2022:5) contained a number of ambitions, including that, by March 2024, 75% of patients who have been urgently referred by their GP for suspected cancer are diagnosed or have had cancer ruled out within 28 days. By March 2025, waits of longer than a year for elective care should be eliminated and 95% of patients needing a diagnostic test should receive it within six weeks. The report acknowledged the need to grow the workforce to achieve these ambitions and ensure a timely cancer diagnosis, while also proposing the use of digital technology and data systems to free up capacity. To assist West Yorkshire National Health Service (NHS) organisations to meet these ambitions, this report presents the findings of a ‘deep dive’ that focuses on the role of radiology in meeting the ambitions of providing timely cancer diagnosis. Aims 1. To understand current and projected demand for radiology expertise in cancer diagnosis in West Yorkshire. 2. To understand the current and projected radiology workforce in West Yorkshire and determine the gap between the projected radiology workforce and the required radiology workforce. 3. To identify possible solutions to assist in providing the radiology workforce required for West Yorkshire and explore their acceptability and potential impact. Methods A range of sources of data and methods were utilised. We examined publicly available quantitative data concerning cancer waiting times and diagnostic waiting times and activity and used this to forecast future cancer waiting times and diagnostic waiting times and activity. We examined data from Health Education England (HEE) regarding radiologists’ and radiographers’ workforce profile data for West Yorkshire, the number of radiologists completing training, and the number of radiographers graduating, and data submitted by West Yorkshire Trusts to HEE regarding their plans for growing their radiology and radiographer workforce. Interviews (N=15) conducted with radiology service managers, university academics and key strategic and operational stakeholders delivering radiology services were used to understand the current and future issues around strategic workforce planning, workforce changes and transformation, workforce roles and skills, training and education and service changes. A rapid review of the literature examining the impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) on the workload of radiology services was also undertaken. To put this work in context, we also reviewed relevant policy documents and reports. Alongside this, we consulted with the Yorkshire Imaging Collaborative (YIC) and the West Yorkshire Cancer Alliance (WYCA) and attended a series of workshops run by the Yorkshire Imaging Collaborative. Results Overall, the findings show that demand for radiology services is increasing and that both cancer waiting times and the waiting times for diagnostic tests increased, with a concurrent downward trend in activity that, if all else stays the same, is forecast to continue up to 2025. The cancer waiting times data indicate that patients were waiting longer and that their needs were not being met. Moreover, 3 the proportion of people treated within accepted cancer waiting times decreased both nationally and within the West Yorkshire region from 2013. This was exacerbated by COVID-19 which caused a further decrease nationally and for the West Yorkshire region. National data for waiting times for all diagnostic tests show a significant decline between 2006 and 2008, with a decrease in median waiting times from just under 6.0 weeks to approximately 2.0 weeks. Overall, waiting times remained stable until late 2020 when they started to rise with the longest median waiting times at just over 8.0 weeks in mid-2020. The total number of people waiting for radiology tests nationally is decreasing and is predicted to continue to do so, while in West Yorkshire the number of people waiting for radiology tests decreased until 2020 but has since been on an upward trend which is predicted to continue. Nationally, the total number of radiology tests is on an upward trend that is predicted to continue, while in West Yorkshire activity has been decreasing since well before COVID-19 and is predicted to continue to do so. Data examining the current and future workforce showed that the national figures for the total radiology and radiography workforce are small relative to other health professional groups. In West Yorkshire, 265 radiologists and 926 radiographers were employed, and staff turnover was generally low. Trusts’ forecasts for the number of radiologists and radiographers they believe they need suggest a 16% increase in the number of radiologists in post between March 2022 and March 2027 and a 25% increase in the number of radiographers in post. The numbers of radiographers and radiologists being trained in West Yorkshire suggest that this is feasible. Interview data identified a number of main themes and associated issues: delivering diagnostic cancer targets, strategic workforce planning, workforce roles and skills, service transformation, recruitment and retention, universities, artificial intelligence, collaboration, and international recruitment. Across all themes, some reoccurring issues were identified: a lack of staff, increased demands, a lack of capacity in terms of space and staff, a lack of strategic workforce planning with a focus on operational or financial plans. Respondents proposed potential solutions to some of the issues raised that included: new ways of working, upskilling, developing current and emerging roles, Community Diagnostic Centres (CDCs), greater collaboration between NHS Trusts, universities, CDCs, imaging academies and networks and the private sector, and the international recruitment of radiologists and radiographers to address workforce gaps. The rapid review findings helped to identify a number of potential benefits of use of AI in radiology, including contributing to improved workflow efficacy and efficiency of radiology services. However, this is dependent on the nature of the work and the AI function. As a result of faster AI reading, radiologists may be able to focus more on high-risk, complex reading tasks. AI can support automation of image segmentation and classification and aid the diagnostic confidence of less experienced radiologists. Respondents’ views on AI were mixed. There was acknowledgement that AI was already used to support radiology service delivery and both the benefits and problems associated were identified. The implications of AI for radiologists’ and radiographers’ roles were discussed in terms of changing work, AI being used to support or in some cases substitute radiologists and radiographers, and the need for the radiology workforce to adapt to the technological change whilst maintaining a caring service
    • The role of children’s hospices in perinatal palliative care and advance care planning: the results of a national British survey

      Tatterton, Michael J.; Fisher, Megan J.; Storton, H.; Walker, C. (Wiley, 2023)
      Introduction: perinatal palliative care services are increasingly available globally, offering a range of clinical and psychological support services to families during pregnancy, in the neonatal period and following the death of a baby with a life-limiting or life-threatening condition. Little is understood about the role of children’s hospice care and how it contributes to effective perinatal palliative care. Design: The study aims to answer the question ‘what is the role of children’s hospices in the provision of perinatal palliative care and advance care planning in the United Kingdom?’ Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all 54 children’s hospices in the United Kingdom between May and June 2022. Results: 30 hospices responded, representing 54% of the sector. All regions of all four counties are represented. Numbers of referrals to hospices for perinatal palliative care have increased significantly over the last five years. Hospices provide a range of services for families and babies, usually from the point of diagnosis or recognition of a life-limiting or life-threatening condition, underpinned with counselling and emotional support. Hospices worked with a range of professionals and services, most commonly fetal medicine and neonatal services. Advance care plans were an important element of effective perinatal palliative care, strengthening parent-professional and interprofessional relationships. Conclusion: Children’s hospice services play an important and growing role in the perinatal care of babies and families following the diagnosis or recognition of a life limiting or life-threatening condition. The family centred approach to care, from a broad, biopsychosocial perspective means that hospices make a unique and meaningful contribution to both the clinical and psychological needs of families.
    • Perception of Health Care Workers (HCWs) towards early antenatal booking in Fiji: A qualitative study

      Maharaj, R.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-11)
      Background: Early booking or registration into Antenatal Care (ANC) can be defined as initiation of ANC before 12 weeks of gestation and is important for the best health outcome of the mother and the baby. Delayed initiation of ANC has been linked to increased rate of maternal and fetal mortality. There is international consensus that ANC should begin within first trimester yet pregnant women delay initiation of ANC. Health Care Workers (HCWs) understanding of reasons for this can improve patient provider relationship. Objectives: This study aims to explore the perception of the HCWs in Fiji towards early antenatal booking. Methods: A qualitative study was employed using four Focus-Group Discussions (FGDs)with the HCWs who provide health care service for pregnant women in Ba Mission Hospital (BMH) in 2020. Each group comprised of medical officers, mid-wives and registered nurse who were chosen purposively. A semi-structured open ended questionnaire was used to guide the discussion. Data was transcribed and analyzed manually using thematic content analysis using the following process: familiarization, coding, identifying themes, reviewing and refining, integration and interpretation. Results: There was a total of 18 HCWs for the FGDs. The mean age of the participants was 37.4±11.8years. The three themes identified were: knowledge of HCWs on early booking, their perceived barriers and perceived enabling factors to early antenatal booking. The FGDs identified that the HCWs had adequate knowledge on early initiation of ANC and that there were a range of barriers to early initiation of ANC. The HCWs also suggested factors that could enable women to book early. Conclusion: Based on the study it can be concluded that the HCWs have a positive perception of early antenatal booking, however, there are various factors that contribute to delayed antenatal booking. The barriers to early ANC are both an opportunity and a challenge to strengthen and review the maternal services offered. The enabling factors should be reinforced from an individual level to the health system and the general context. The implications of the barriers and enabling factors identified in this study is to implement evidence-based policies to improve early antenatal booking in Ba, Fiji.
    • Increasing and sustaining diabetic retinopathy screening in Fiji by leveraging community health workers (CHWs) services: A qualitative study.

      Ram, S.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Ram, K.; Prasad, K.; Pal, M.; Dalmia, P. (2022-11)
      Inequities in access to diabetic retinopathy (DR) services particularly in rural and remote Fiji is concerning. This is because DR when left undiagnosed and untreated for long, can lead to vision loss and permanent blindness. Appropriate channels must be explored to strengthen services and ensure equitable access to healthcare for everyone. This study describes the development and implementation of DR awareness training for community health workers (CHWs) and their subsequent engagement to raise awareness and scale-up DR screening for communities throughout Fiji. As part of a programme to reduce the incidence of avoidable blindness due to diabetes amongst people living in the Pacific, DR training for primary level nurses was developed and implemented. As these primary level nurses were already inundated by clinical duties and competing health priorities, a shifting of the task was proposed to engage the CHWs who would instead educate communities on diabetes and DR and make referrals for DR screening. A one-day DR awareness training was developed and implemented by the Pacific Eye Institute with funding from the Fred Hollows Foundation New Zealand. At the end of the DR programme in 2019, the team had achieved their target and trained a total of 823 CHWs giving an 81.32% coverage of the total 1012 registered CHW in the MHMS register. Anecdotal evidence showed a spike in DR referrals and screenings recorded at health facilities. Three key themes emerged related to the involvement of CHWs which include engagement of CHWs, benefits of the engagement, and health system-related challenges. The use of CHWs who are already integrated into the health system was considered a sustainable intervention to strengthen diabetes and DR services at the primary level of care, particularly if it involves community awareness, health education, and health services facilitation The future of the CHWs will depend on their being integrated more systematically into local health services with strengthened management and supervision.
    • Identifying factors which enhance the self-management of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with thematic analysis

      Bako, K.R.; Reynolds, A.N.; Sika-Paotonu, D.; Signal, L.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-11)
      Background: Individuals with type 2 diabetes play a pivotal role in their health. Enhancing the self-management of diabetes can improve blood glucose control, and quality of life, and reduce diabetes-related complications. We have identified factors influencing the self-management of type 2 diabetes to inform strategies that may be applied in the long-term management of blood glucose control. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of recent studies published between January 2010 to December 2020 to identify the available evidence on effective self-management strategies for type 2 diabetes. The databases used for the searchers were Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. We assessed English language publications only. The screening of titles was duplicated by two researchers. We then conducted a thematic analysis of the key findings from eligible publications to identify reoccurring messages that may augment or abate self-management strategies. Results: We identified 49 relevant publications involving 90,857 participants. Four key themes were identified from these publications: Individual drive, social capital, Knowledge base, and Insufficient health care. High motivation and self-efficacy enabled greater self-management. The importance of family, friends, and the health care professional was salient, as were the negative effects of stigma and labelling. Enablers to good self-management were the level of support provided and its affordability. Finally, the accessibility and adequacy of the health care services emerged as fundamental to permit diabetes self-management. Conclusions: Self-management of type 2 diabetes is an essential strategy given its global presence and impact, and the current resource constraints in health care. Individuals with type 2 diabetes should be empowered and supported to self-manage. This includes awareness raising on their role in self-health, engaging broader support networks, and the pivotal role of health care professionals to inform and support. Further research is needed into the capacity assessment of healthcare systems in diabetes medicine, targeted low-cost resources for self-management, and the financial requirements that enable self-management advice to be enacted.