• New techniques for wound debridement

      Madhok, B.M.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2013)
      Debridement is a crucial component of wound management. Traditionally, several types of wound debridement techniques have been used in clinical practice such as autolytic, enzymatic, biodebridement, mechanical, conservative sharp and surgical. Various factors determine the method of choice for debridement for a particular wound such as suitability to the patient, the type of wound, its anatomical location and the extent of debridement required. Recently developed products are beginning to challenge traditional techniques that are currently used in wound bed preparation. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the current evidence behind the use of these newer techniques in clinical practice. There is some evidence to suggest that low frequency ultrasound therapy may improve healing rates in patients with venous ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Hydrosurgery debridement is quick and precise, but the current evidence is limited and further studies are underway. Debridement using a monofilament polyester fibre pad and plasma-mediated bipolar radiofrequency ablation are both very new techniques. The initial evidence is limited, and further studies are warranted to confirm their role in management of chronic wounds.
    • A new tomorrow: cancer and pain management

      Fascia, M.; McIntosh, Bryan (2014)
    • The Nigerian health workforce in a globalized context

      Archibong, Uduak E.; Eshareturi, Cyril (2019-10)
      Nigerian health professionals are impacted by several global forces bearing down on them, one of which is the positive economic prospects associated with emigrating to work abroad. This emigration is an aspect of increased global mobility which has had an adverse effect on the Nigerian health economy. This is important globally because countries with the smallest healthcare workforce capacities such as Nigeria have the poorest health outcomes. The emigration of health professionals from Nigeria will continue until domestic structures such as improved healthcare infrastructures, job security, and financial rewards change for the better. Thus, it is important that measures aimed at supporting the Nigerian health workforce be implemented with a focus on building and managing for sustainability within the context of international interdependency. Accordingly, this chapter is aimed at creating a theoretical framework for building capacities and managing the challenges of the Nigerian health workforce vis-à-vis the opportunities offered by globalization.
    • Noise estimation in cardiac x-ray imaging: a machine vision approach

      Kengyelics, S.M.; Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Keeble, C.; Magee, D.R.; Davies, A.G. (2016-12-16)
      We propose a method to automatically parameterize noise in cardiac x-ray image sequences. The aim was to provide context-sensitive imaging information for use in regulating dose control feedback systems that relates to the experience of human observers. The algorithm locates and measures noise contained in areas of approximately equal signal level. A single noise metric is derived from the dominant noise components based on their magnitude and spatial location in relation to clinically relevant structures. The output of the algorithm was compared to noise and clinical acceptability ratings from 28 observers viewing 40 different cardiac x-ray imaging sequences. Results show good agreement and that the algorithm has the potential to augment existing control strategies to deliver x-ray dose to the patient on an individual basis.
    • Non medical prescribing.

      Armitage, Gerry R.; Marshall, Kay M.; Shah, K. (2011)
    • Non-medical prescribing and advanced practice in children's hospices

      Tatterton, Michael J. (Together for Short Lives, 2021)
      In recent years, as the prevalence of prescribers has increased, there has been discord and confusion around exactly how to refer to prescribers who are not doctors (Nuttall and Rutt-Howard, 2020). Professional regulators continue to define prescribers by specific profession, using terms such as ‘nurse prescriber’ (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2018a), ‘pharmacist prescriber’ (General Pharmaceutical Society, 2018) and ‘allied health professional prescriber’ (Health and Care Professions Council, 2016). However, there is a broader range of literature using the collective term of ‘non-medical prescribers’ (All Wales Medicines Strategy Group, 2017; Department of Health Northern Ireland, 2020; NHS England, 2020; Scottish Government, 2020), highlighting the multidisciplinary nature of contemporary prescribing practices across the UK, and the shared responsibility of prescribers for assuring safe and effective practice. Within this chapter, we refer to prescribers collectively, as non-medical prescribers. Although this chapter has been written with the four countries of the UK in mind, it is important that you consider any country-specific, and profession-specific guidelines.
    • Not a level playing field: a qualitative study exploring structural, community and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst low-income multi-ethnic families

      Cronin de Chavez, A.; Islam, Shahid; McEachan, Rosemary (2019-03)
      Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0–3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups. Thematic analyses were informed by the Human Health Habitat Map and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The results show that whilst all families recognised the benefits of greenspaces, use was bounded by a variety of structural, community, and individual determinants. Individual determinants preventing use included lack of knowledge about where to go, or how to get there and confidence in managing young children whilst outdoors. Fear of crime, antisocial behaviour and accidents were the overriding barriers to use, even in high quality spaces. Social and community influences both positively encouraged use (for example, positive social interactions, and practical support by others) and prevented use (antisocial or inappropriate behaviours experienced in greenspace). The built environment was a key barrier to use. Problems related to unsuitable or unsafe playgrounds, no gardens or safe areas for children's play, poor accessibility, and lack of toilets were identified. However, the value that parents and children placed on natural blue and green features was an enabler to use. Contextual influences included external time pressures, difficulties of transporting and caring for young children and poor weather. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to tackle the uneven playing field experienced by multi-ethnic, urban, deprived communities. Initiatives to increase use should tackle structural quality issues, addressing fears about safety, whilst simultaneously encouraging communities to reclaim their local greenspaces.
    • Nurse Education and Communities of Practice.

      Burkitt, Ian; Husband, Charles H.; Mackenzie, Jennifer; Torn, Alison (English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting., 2001)
      The processes whereby nurses develop the skills and knowledge required to deliver individualized and holistic care were examined in a 2-year study of nurses in a range of clinical settings and a university department of nursing in England. Members of two research teams of qualified nurses joined various communities of nursing practice as participating members and simultaneously "shadowed" designated nurses. At day's end, shadowers and shadowees reviewed the day's practice in critical incident interviews. The powerful processes of nurse socialization that create a strong core identity of the "good nurse" proved central to understanding the acquisition, use, and protection of nursing skills. Learning to become a nurse was always situated within particular communities of practice. Learning in such contexts, both in clinical and educational settings, entailed not just mastering a range of intellectual concepts but also learning through embodied performances involving engagement and interaction with the community of practice. The following were among the study recommendations: (1) link educational and clinical settings by helping clinical staff understand their collective role in the educational experience; (2) enhance the mentor and assessor functions; and (3) enable, support, and resource time in education for clinicians and time in practice for educators.
    • Nurses' communication skills: an evaluation of the impact of solution-focused communication training

      Mackintosh, Carolyn; Bowles, N.B.; Torn, Alison (2001)
      This paper describes the evaluation of a short training course in solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) skills. This evaluation examined the relevance of SFBT skills to nursing and the extent to which a short training course affected nurses¿ communication skills. Nurses¿ communication skills have been criticized for many years, as has the training in communication skills that nurses receive. The absence of a coherent theoretical or practical framework for communication skills training led us to consider the utility of SFBT as a framework for a short training course for qualified nurses, the majority of them are registered nurses working with adults. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected: the former using pre- and post-training scales, the latter using a focus group conducted 6 months after the training. Data were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and content analysis. Quantitative data indicated positive changes in nurses¿ practice following the training on four dimensions, and changes in nurses¿ willingness to communicate with people who are troubled reached levels of significance. Qualitative data uncovered changes to practice, centred on the rejection of problem-orientated discourses and reduced feelings of inadequacy and emotional stress in the nurses. There are indications that SFBT techniques may be relevant to nursing and a useful, cost-effective approach to the training of communication skills. Solution focused brief therapy provides a framework and easily understood tool-kit that are harmonious with nursing values.
    • Nurses’ attitudes to supporting people who are suicidal in emergency departments

      Briggs, Amanda (2018-05-10)
      The aim of this study is to determine emergency nurses’ knowledge about, and perceived ability to support, people who are suicidal. A questionnaire consisting of 34 questions was sent out to 113 adult emergency nurses employed in two emergency departments. A total of 38 responded. Findings highlight differences in attitudes and show a correlation between suicide prevention training and nurses’ perceived competence to triage people who are suicidal. The article makes recommendations for future research, as well as nurse education and training on suicide prevention, to improve attitudes and increase emergency nurses’ ability to respond effectively to people who are suicidal.
    • Nursing those at the end of life

      Taylor, Vanessa; Norris, Beverley (2016-01)
    • Obtaining Informed Consent in an Egyptian Research Study

      Rashad, A.M.; MacVane Phipps, Fiona E.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie (2004)
      This article explores the concept of internationally acceptable codes of ethics within the context of an Egyptian nurse’s PhD studies. Theoretical work, including gaining ethical approval for the project, took place in the UK, while the data collection phase of the study was done in Egypt. This highlighted areas where the Arab Muslim interpretation of some ethical principles, especially around the issue of gaining informed consent, differed from that currently accepted in British research ethics. The authors argue that it may not be possible, or even desirable, to standardize codes of ethics globally in areas such as academic research. Ethical principles develop from a unique mix of culture and religion. It may be more important to develop cultural competence that includes the ability to understand and respect the way in which ethical principles are interpreted by various societies.
    • Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between hispanic women with different levels of daily participation

      Orellano-Colon, E.M.; Mountain, Gail; Varas, N.; Labault, N. (2014-01)
      In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.
    • Older Adults’ Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors’ Perspectives.

      Hawley-Hague, H.; Horne, Maria; Skelton, D.A.; Todd, C. (2016)
      Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors’ experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semi-structured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n=19) delivering multi-component exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults’ uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed ‘barriers’ related to identity, choice/control, cost, venue and ‘solutions’ including providing choice, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch and social support. ‘Barriers’ to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences and ‘solutions’ identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults’ attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults’ uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors’ perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.
    • Older people's care experience in community and general hospitals: a comparative study

      Green, J.R.; Forster, A.; Young, J.; Small, Neil A.; Spink, Joanna (2008)
      Community hospitals are an important component of the post-acute care pathway for older people. The objective of this study was to describe and contrast patients' and carers' experiences of community and general hospitals. Interviews with patients and carers revealed similarities in the perceptions of care between the two settings. These included appreciation of staff sensitivity, a sense of security, encouragement of independence and lack of activity. The community hospital was appreciated for its location, atmosphere, accommodation, greater sense of freedom, quality of food and staff attitudes. UK health policy promotes the development of community hospitals. This should be progressed in a way that retains key strengths of the specific service they offer.
    • Older people's views of a good death in heart failure: implications for palliative care provision

      Gott, M.; Small, Neil A.; Barnes, S.; Payne, S.; Seamark, D. (2008)
      Palliative care in the UK has been developed to meet the needs of predominantly middle aged and younger old people with cancer. Few data are available regarding the extent to which services respond to the specific needs of an older group of people with other illnesses. This paper draws on in-depth interviews conducted with 40 people (median age 77) with advanced heart failure and poor prognosis to explore the extent to which older people's views and concerns about dying are consistent with the prevalent model of the 'good death' underpinning palliative care delivery. That prevalent model is identified as the "revivalist" good death. Our findings indicate that older people's views of a 'good death' often conflict with the values upon which palliative care is predicated. For example, in line with previous research, many participants did not want an open awareness of death preceded by acknowledgement of the potential imminence of dying. Similarly, concepts of autonomy and individuality appeared alien to most. Indeed, whilst there was evidence that palliative care could help improve the end of life experiences of older people, for example in initiating discussions around death and dying, the translation of other aspects of specialist palliative care philosophy appear more problematic. Ultimately, the study identified that improving the end of life experiences of older people must involve addressing the problematised nature of ageing and old age within contemporary society, whilst recognising the cohort and cultural effects that influence attitudes to death and dying.
    • On folk devils, moral panics and new wave public health

      Mannion, R.; Small, Neil A. (2019-12)
      New wave public health places an emphasis on exhorting individuals to engage in healthy behaviour with good health being a signifier of virtuous moral standing, whereas poor health is often associated with personal moral failings. In effect, the medical is increasingly being collapsed into the moral. This approach is consistent with other aspects of contemporary neoliberal governance, but it fuels moral panics and creates folk devils. We explore the implications and dysfunctional consequences of this new wave of public health policy in the context of the latest moral panic around obesity.