• Developing supportive local communities: Perspectives from people with dementia participating in the IDEAL programme

      Quinn, Catherine; Hart, N.; Henderson, C.; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.; Clare, L. (2021)
      Communities play an important role in supporting people living with affected by dementia. The aim of this study was to explore what could be changed in the local community to enable those with dementia to live well. People with dementia and carers taking part in the IDEAL programme responded to open-ended questions. Responses from 1,172 people with dementia and 702 caregivers were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: raising awareness, improving access to support services, providing social events and activities, and supporting people to engage in the community. These highlight the role of individuals, resources and the environment in supporting those with dementia. Longer-term investment in services is needed to underpin dementia-inclusive communities.
    • Developing the New Interventions for independence in Dementia Study (NIDUS) theoretical model for supporting people to live well with dementia at home for longer: a systematic review of theoretical models and Randomised Controlled Trial evidence

      Lord, Kathryn; Beresford-Dent, Jules; Rapaport, P.; Burton, A.; Leverton, M.; Walters, K.; Lang, I.; Downs, Murna G.; Manthorpe, J.; Boex, S.; et al. (2020-01)
      Purpose: To build an evidence-informed theoretical model describing how to support people with dementia to live well or for longer at home. Methods: We searched electronic databases to August 2018 for papers meeting predetermined inclusion criteria in two reviews that informed our model. We scoped literature for theoretical models of how to enable people with dementia to live at home independently, with good life quality or for longer. We systematically reviewed Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) reporting psychosocial intervention effects on time lived with dementia at home. Two researchers independently rated risk of bias. We developed our theoretical model through discussions with experts by personal, clinical and academic experiences, informed by this evidence base. Results: Our scoping review included 52 studies. We divided models identified into: values and approaches (relational and recovery models; optimising environment and activities; family carer skills and support); care strategies (family carer-focused; needs and goal-based; self-management); and service models (case management; integrated; consumer-directed). The 11 RCTs included in our systematic review, all judged at low risk of bias, described only two interventions that increased time people with dementia lived in their own homes. These collectively encompassed all these components except for consumer-directed and integrated care. We developed and revised our model, using review evidence and expert consultation to define the final model. Conclusions: Our theoretical model describes values, care strategies and service models that can be used in the design of interventions to enable people with dementia to live well and for longer at home.
    • Development and evaluation of an intervention for the prevention of obesity in a multiethnic population : the Born in Bradford applied research porgramme

      West, Jane; Fairley, L.; McEachan, Rosemary; Bryant, M.; Petherick, E.S.; Sahota, P.; Santorelli, G.; Barber, Sally E.; Lawlor, D.A.; Taylor, N.; et al. (2016-05)
      Background: There is an absence of evidence about interventions to prevent or treat obesity in early childhood and in South Asian populations, in whom risk is higher. Objectives: To study patterns and the aetiology of childhood obesity in a multiethnic population and develop a prevention intervention. Design: A cohort of pregnant women and their infants was recruited. Measures to compare growth and identify targets for obesity prevention, sensitive to ethnic differences, were collected. A feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken. Setting: Bradford, UK. Participants: A total of 1735 mothers, 933 of whom were of South Asian origin. Intervention: A feasibility trial of a group-based intervention aimed at overweight women, delivered ante- and postnatally, targeting key modifiable lifestyle behaviours to reduce infant obesity. Main outcome measures: The feasibility and acceptability of the pilot intervention. Data sources: Routine NHS data and additional bespoke research data. Review methods: A systematic review of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asian children and adults.
    • Development and external validation of an automated computer-aided risk score for predicting sepsis in emergency medical admissions using the patient’s first electronically recorded vital signs and blood test results

      Faisal, Muhammad; Scally, Andy J.; Richardson, D.; Beatson, K.; Howes, R.; Speed, K.; Mohammed, Mohammed A. (2018-04)
      Objectives: To develop a logistic regression model to predict the risk of sepsis following emergency medical admission using the patient’s first, routinely collected, electronically recorded vital signs and blood test results and to validate this novel computer-aided risk of sepsis model, using data from another hospital. Design: Cross-sectional model development and external validation study reporting the C-statistic based on a validated optimized algorithm to identify sepsis and severe sepsis (including septic shock) from administrative hospital databases using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, codes. Setting: Two acute hospitals (York Hospital - development data; Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital - external validation data). Patients: Adult emergency medical admissions discharged over a 24-month period with vital signs and blood test results recorded at admission. Interventions: None. Main Results: The prevalence of sepsis and severe sepsis was lower in York Hospital (18.5% = 4,861/2,6247; 5.3% = 1,387/2,6247) than Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital (25.1% = 7,773/30,996; 9.2% = 2,864/30,996). The mortality for sepsis (York Hospital: 14.5% = 704/4,861; Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital: 11.6% = 899/7,773) was lower than the mortality for severe sepsis (York Hospital: 29.0% = 402/1,387; Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital: 21.4% = 612/2,864). The C-statistic for computer-aided risk of sepsis in York Hospital (all sepsis 0.78; sepsis: 0.73; severe sepsis: 0.80) was similar in an external hospital setting (Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital: all sepsis 0.79; sepsis: 0.70; severe sepsis: 0.81). A cutoff value of 0.2 gives reasonable performance. Conclusions: We have developed a novel, externally validated computer-aided risk of sepsis, with reasonably good performance for estimating the risk of sepsis for emergency medical admissions using the patient’s first, electronically recorded, vital signs and blood tests results. Since computer-aided risk of sepsis places no additional data collection burden on clinicians and is automated, it may now be carefully introduced and evaluated in hospitals with sufficient informatics infrastructure.
    • Development and initial validation of the Influences on Patient Safety Behaviours Questionnaire

      Taylor, N.; Parveen, Sahdia; Robins, V.; Slater, B.; Lawton, R. (2013)
      Background: Understanding the factors that make it more or less likely that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) will perform certain patient safety behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies. A questionnaire to identify determinants of HCP patient safety behaviors does not currently exist. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Influences on Patient Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (IPSBQ) based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three HCPs from three acute National Health Service Hospital Trusts in the United Kingdom completed the 34-item measure focusing on one specific patient safety behavior (using pH as the first line method for checking the position of a nasogastric tube). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to generate the model of best fit. Results: The final questionnaire consisted of 11 factors and 23 items, and CFA produced a reasonable fit: χ2 (175) = 345.7, p < 0.001; CMIN/DF = 1.98; GFI = 0.90 and RMSEA = 0.06, as well as adequate levels of discriminant validity, and internal consistency (r = 0.21 to 0.64). Conclusions: A reliable and valid theoretically underpinned measure of determinants of HCP patient safety behavior has been developed. The criterion validity of the measure is still unknown and further work is necessary to confirm the reliability and validity of this measure for other patient safety behaviors.
    • Development and psychometric evaluation of an observational coding system measuring person-centred care in spouses of people with dementia

      Ellis-Gray, S.L.; Riley, G.A.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2014-07-15)
      Background: The notion of person-centered care has been important in investigating relationships between people with dementia and paid carers, and measures are available to assess this. It has been suggested that person-centered care may be a useful construct to apply to understand family-care relationships. However, no measures of person-centered care in this context exist. The study aimed to develop an observational measure of person-centered care for this purpose. Method: First, a coding system incorporating a range of behaviors that could be considered person-centered or non-person-centered was constructed. Examples included a code relating to whether the person with dementia was involved in planning a task, and a code relating to how the spouse responded to confusion/distress. Second, 11 couples, where one partner had a dementia, were recruited and videotaped cooperating on an everyday task. The system was applied to the care-giving spouse's behaviors, labeling examples of behavior as person-centered or non-person-centered. The final step involved assessing the inter-rater reliability of the system. Results: The system captured nine categories of behavior, which were each divided into person-centered and non-person-centered types. The system had good reliability (Cohen's κ coefficients were: 0.65 for category and whether behaviors needed to be placed in a category; 0.81 for category excluding the decision about whether behaviors needed to be placed in a category; and 0.79 in relation to whether behaviors were person-centered or non-person-centered.) Conclusions: Although the small sample size limits the implications of the results, the system is a promising quantitative measure of spousal person-centered care.
    • Development and validation of a decision tree early warning score based on routine laboratory test results for the discrimination of hospital mortality in emergency medical admissions

      Jarvis, S.W.; Kovacs, C.; Badriyah, T.; Briggs, J.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Meredith, P.; Schmidt, P.E.; Featherstone, P.I.; Prytherch, D.R.; Smith, G.B. (2013-11)
      To build an early warning score (EWS) based exclusively on routinely undertaken laboratory tests that might provide early discrimination of in-hospital death and could be easily implemented on paper. Using a database of combined haematology and biochemistry results for 86,472 discharged adult patients for whom the admission specialty was Medicine, we used decision tree (DT) analysis to generate a laboratory decision tree early warning score (LDT-EWS) for each gender. LDT-EWS was developed for a single set (n=3496) (Q1) and validated in 22 other discrete sets each of three months long (Q2, Q3...Q23) (total n=82,976; range of n=3428 to 4093) by testing its ability to discriminate in-hospital death using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. The data generated slightly different models for male and female patients. The ranges of AUROC values (95% CI) for LDT-EWS with in-hospital death as the outcome for the validation sets Q2-Q23 were: 0.755 (0.727-0.783) (Q16) to 0.801 (0.776-0.826) [all patients combined, n=82,976]; 0.744 (0.704-0.784, Q16) to 0.824 (0.792-0.856, Q2) [39,591 males]; and 0.742 (0.707-0.777, Q10) to 0.826 (0.796-0.856, Q12) [43,385 females]. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the results of commonly measured laboratory tests collected soon after hospital admission can be represented in a simple, paper-based EWS (LDT-EWS) to discriminate in-hospital mortality. We hypothesise that, with appropriate modification, it might be possible to extend the use of LDT-EWS throughout the patient's hospital stay.
    • Development and validation of a novel computer-aided score to predict the risk of in-hospital mortality for acutely ill medical admissions in two acute hospitals using their first electronically recorded blood test results and vital signs: a cross-sectional study

      Faisal, Muhammad; Scally, Andy J.; Jackson, N.; Richardson, D.; Beatson, K.; Howes, R.; Speed, K.; Menon, M.; Daws, J.; Dyson, J.; et al. (2018-12)
      Objectives There are no established mortality risk equations specifically for emergency medical patients who are admitted to a general hospital ward. Such risk equations may be useful in supporting the clinical decision-making process. We aim to develop and externally validate a computer-aided risk of mortality (CARM) score by combining the first electronically recorded vital signs and blood test results for emergency medical admissions. Design Logistic regression model development and external validation study. Setting Two acute hospitals (Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Foundation Trust Hospital (NH)—model development data; York Hospital (YH)—external validation data). Participants Adult (aged ≥16 years) medical admissions discharged over a 24-month period with electronic National Early Warning Score(s) and blood test results recorded on admission. Results The risk of in-hospital mortality following emergency medical admission was 5.7% (NH: 1766/30 996) and 6.5% (YH: 1703/26 247). The C-statistic for the CARM score in NH was 0.87 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.88) and was similar in an external hospital setting YH (0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87) and the calibration slope included 1 (0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.00). Conclusions We have developed a novel, externally validated CARM score with good performance characteristics for estimating the risk of in-hospital mortality following an emergency medical admission using the patient’s first, electronically recorded, vital signs and blood test results. Since the CARM score places no additional data collection burden on clinicians and is readily automated, it may now be carefully introduced and evaluated in hospitals with sufficient informatics infrastructure.
    • Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using routine primary care electronic health record data

      Clegg, A.; Bates, C.; Young, J.; Ryan, R.; Nichols, L.; Teale, E.A.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Parry, J.; Marshall, T. (2016)
      Background: frailty is an especially problematic expression of population ageing. International guidelines recommend routine identification of frailty to provide evidence-based treatment, but currently available tools require additional resource. Objectives: to develop and validate an electronic frailty index (eFI) using routinely available primary care electronic health record data. Study design and setting: retrospective cohort study. Development and internal validation cohorts were established using a randomly split sample of the ResearchOne primary care database. External validation cohort established using THIN database. Participants: patients aged 65–95, registered with a ResearchOne or THIN practice on 14 October 2008. Predictors: we constructed the eFI using the cumulative deficit frailty model as our theoretical framework. The eFI score is calculated by the presence or absence of individual deficits as a proportion of the total possible. Categories of fit, mild, moderate and severe frailty were defined using population quartiles. Outcomes: outcomes were 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality, hospitalisation and nursing home admission. Statistical analysis: hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Discrimination was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Calibration was assessed using pseudo-R2 estimates. Results: we include data from a total of 931,541 patients. The eFI incorporates 36 deficits constructed using 2,171 CTV3 codes. One-year adjusted HR for mortality was 1.92 (95% CI 1.81–2.04) for mild frailty, 3.10 (95% CI 2.91–3.31) for moderate frailty and 4.52 (95% CI 4.16–4.91) for severe frailty. Corresponding estimates for hospitalisation were 1.93 (95% CI 1.86– 2.01), 3.04 (95% CI 2.90–3.19) and 4.73 (95% CI 4.43–5.06) and for nursing home admission were 1.89 (95% CI 1.63–2.15), 3.19 (95% CI 2.73–3.73) and 4.76 (95% CI 3.92–5.77), with good to moderate discrimination but low calibration estimates. Conclusions: the eFI uses routine data to identify older people with mild, moderate and severe frailty, with robust predictive validity for outcomes of mortality, hospitalisation and nursing home admission. Routine implementation of the eFI could enable delivery of evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes for this vulnerable group.
    • Development of a Competency Framework for a Specialist Dementia Service.

      Smythe, A.; Jenkins, C.; Bentham, P.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2014)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a competency framework for staff working in a specialist service for people with dementia. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative and purposive methodology was used and included focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Content analysis together with synthesis of literature was used to generate the competency framework. Findings – A competency framework was developed with eight main clusters. These were: skills for working effectively with people with dementia and their families; advanced assessment skills; enhancing psychological well-being; understanding behaviours; enhancing physical well-being; clinical leadership; understanding ethical and legal issues; and demonstrating skills in personal and professional development. Research limitations/implications – Further research is needed to include service user perspectives. Practical implications – The framework could be implemented in practice by managers, health care professionals and training providers as a tool to identify strengths and limitations in knowledge skills and attitudes and to identify areas for competency development through specific training. Originality/value – The competency framework contributes to the development of a training curriculum for staff working within a specialist service.
    • Development of a core outcome set for disease modification trials in mild to moderate dementia: a systematic review, patient and public consultation and consensus recommendations

      Webster, L.; Groskreutz, D.; Grinbergs-Saull, A.; Howard, R.; O'Brien, J.T.; Mountain, Gail; Banerjee, S.; Woods, B.; Perneczky, R.; Lafortune, L.; et al. (2017-05)
      We defined disease-modification interventions as those aiming to change the underlying pathology. We systematically searched electronic databases and previous systematic reviews for published and ongoing trials of disease-modifying treatments in mild-to-moderate dementia. We included 149/22,918 of the references found; with 81 outcome measures from 125 trials. Trials involved participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone (n = 111), or AD and mild cognitive impairment (n = 8) and three vascular dementia. We divided outcomes by the domain measured (cognition, activities of daily living, biological markers, neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, global). We calculated the number of trials and of participants using each outcome. We detailed psychometric properties of each outcome. We sought the views of people living with dementia and family carers in three cities through Alzheimer's society focus groups. Attendees at a consensus conference (experts in dementia research, disease-modification and harmonisation measures) decided on the core set of outcomes using these results. Recommended core outcomes were cognition as the fundamental deficit in dementia and to indicate disease modification, serial structural MRIs. Cognition should be measured by Mini Mental State Examination or Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. MRIs would be optional for patients. We also made recommendations for measuring important, but non-core domains which may not change despite disease modification.
    • Development of a Generic Wound Care Assessment Minimum Data Set

      Coleman, S.; Nelson, E.; Vowden, Peter; Vowden, Kath; Adderley, U.; Sunderland, L.; Harker, J.; Conroy, T.; Fiora, S.; Bezer, N.; et al. (2017-11)
      At present there is no established national minimum data set (MDS) for generic wound assessment in England, which has led to a lack of standardisation and variable assessment criteria being used across the country. This hampers the quality and monitoring of wound healing progress and treatment. The article aims to establish a generic wound assessment MDS to underpin clinical practice. The project comprised 1) a literature review to provide an overview of wound assessment best practice and identify potential assessment criteria for inclusion in the MDS and 2) a structured consensus study using an adapted Research and Development/University of California at Los Angeles Appropriateness method. This incorporated experts in the wound care field considering the evidence of a literature review and their experience to agree the assessment criteria to be included in the MDS. The literature review identified 24 papers that contained criteria which might be considered as part of generic wound assessment. From these papers 68 potential assessment items were identified and the expert group agreed that 37 (relating to general health information, baseline wound information, wound assessment parameters, wound symptoms and specialists) should be included in the MDS. Using a structured approach we have developed a generic wound assessment MDS to underpin wound assessment documentation and practice. It is anticipated that the MDS will facilitate a more consistent approach to generic wound assessment practice and support providers and commissioners of care to develop and re-focus services that promote improvements in wound care.
    • Development of a model for integrated care at the end of life in advanced dementia: A whole systems UK-wide approach

      Jones, L.; Candy, B.; Davis, S.; Elliott, M.; Gola, A.; Harrington, J.; Kupeli, N.; Lord, Kathryn; Moore, K.; Scott, S.; et al. (2016)
      Background: The prevalence of dementia is rising worldwide and many people will die with the disease. Symptoms towards the end of life may be inadequately managed and informal and professional carers poorly supported. There are few evidence-based interventions to improve end-of-life care in advanced dementia. Aim: To develop an integrated, whole systems, evidence-based intervention that is pragmatic and feasible to improve end-of-life care for people with advanced dementia and support those close to them. Design: A realist-based approach in which qualitative and quantitative data assisted the development of statements. These were incorporated into the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to achieve consensus on intervention components. Components were mapped to underlying theory of whole systems change and the intervention described in a detailed manual. Setting/participants: Data were collected from people with dementia, carers and health and social care professionals in England, from expert opinion and existing literature. Professional stakeholders in all four countries of the United Kingdom contributed to the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method process. Results: A total of 29 statements were agreed and mapped to individual, group, organisational and economic/political levels of healthcare systems. The resulting main intervention components are as follows: (1) influencing local service organisation through facilitation of integrated multi-disciplinary care, (2) providing training and support for formal and informal carers and (3) influencing local healthcare commissioning and priorities of service providers. Conclusion: Use of in-depth data, consensus methods and theoretical understanding of the intervention components produced an evidence-based intervention for further testing in end-of-life care in advanced dementia.
    • Development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation: using qualitative interviews to inform design and content

      Patchick, E.; Horne, Maria; Vail, A.; Bowen, A. (2015-12)
      Background Improving cognition is service users' top research priority for life after stroke, and future research should include outcomes that they deem important. Patient perspectives on outcomes are collected using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). There is currently no patient-centred PROM specific for cognitive rehabilitation trials. Objective Inform PROM development by exploring stroke survivor perspectives on the important, measurable impacts of persisting post-stroke cognitive problems. Design Qualitative semi-structured interviews in participants' homes. Participants Purposive sample of 16 cognitively impaired stroke survivors at least six months post-stroke. Methods Interviews used a schedule and communication aids developed through patient consultation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim with non-verbal communication recorded using field notes. Data were analysed using a framework approach to find commonalities to shape the focus and content of an outcome measure. Results Participants identified important impacts of their ‘invisible’ cognitive problems, outside of other stroke-related impairments. Cognitive problems exacerbated emotional issues and vice versa. Changes in self-identity and social participation were prominent. Impact was not spoken about in terms of frequency but rather in terms of the negative affect associated with problems; terms like ‘bothered’ and ‘frustration’ were often used. Conclusions The results support the development of a PROM specifically designed to address the impact of cognitive problems. It should: include items addressing a comprehensive range of cognitive skills; ask questions about mood, self-identity and social participation; use accessible wording that respondents understand and endorse; measure impact rather than frequency; and explore perceived impact on carers.
    • The development of service user-led recommendations for health and social care services on leaving hospital with memory loss or dementia – the SHARED study

      Mockford, C.; Seers, K.; Murray, M.; Oyebode, Jan R.; Clarke, R.; Staniszewska, S.; Suleman, R.; Boex, S.; Diment, Y.; Grant, R.; et al. (2016)
      Background Health and social care services are under strain providing care in the community particularly at hospital discharge. Patient and carer experiences can inform and shape services. Objective To develop service user-led recommendations enabling smooth transition for people living with memory loss from acute hospital to community. Design Lead and co-researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 pairs of carers and patients with memory loss at discharge, 6 and 12 weeks post-discharge and one semi-structured interview with health and social care professionals and Admiral Nurses. Framework analysis was guided by co-researchers. Two focus groups of study participants, facilitated by co-researchers, met to shape and finalize recommendations. Setting and participants Recruitment took place in acute hospitals in two National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England. Patients were aged 65 and over, with memory loss, an in-patient for at least 1 week returning to the community, who had a carer consenting to be in the study. Results Poor delivery of services caused considerable stress to some study families living with memory loss. Three key recommendations included a need for a written, mutually agreed discharge plan, a named coordinator of services, and improved domiciliary care services. Discussion and conclusions Vulnerable patients with memory loss find coming out of hospital after an extended period a stressful experience. The SHARED study contributes to understanding the hospital discharge process through the eyes of the patient and carer living with memory loss and has the potential to contribute to more efficient use of resources and to improving health outcomes in communities.
    • Development of the Adolescent Attitudes towards Dementia Scale (A‐ADS)

      Griffiths, Alys W.; Parveen, Sahdia; Shafiq, Saba; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-08)
      Objective: There has been an increasing interest in establishing dementia friendly communities leading to the development and delivery of various dementia awareness initiatives. These initiatives have generally been aimed at adults, however to sustain dementia friendly communities, the involvement of young people is imperative. Very few dementia awareness initiatives exist for young people and none have been independently evaluated to establish their impact. This research aimed to design and develop a scale to measure adolescents’ attitudes towards dementia to allow such initiatives to be evaluated. Methods: The Adolescent Attitudes toward Dementia Scale (A-ADS) was developed in two stages. Firstly, cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 young people and secondly, a new scale (based on items from two existing scales) was piloted with 262 young people, recruited through schools. Results: A scale consisting of 23 items was developed. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that this captured three factors; perceptions of dementia, personal sacrifice and empathy with people living with dementia. The three sub-scales showed adequate internal consistency (>.60), correlated with the original scales (r = .79-.91, p <.001) and correlated with an existing measure of attitudes towards older people at a similar level to the original scales (r = .47, p < .001). Discussion: The scale will allow the evaluation of educational initiatives for young people and provide a validated and standardised measure to establish adolescents’ attitudes towards dementia.
    • Diabetic bullae: A case series and a new model of surgical management

      Shahi, N.; Bradley, S.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2014-06)
      Bullosis diabeticorum is considered a rare skin manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Tense blisters appear rapidly, mostly on the feet, the cause of which is unclear, with multiple pathophysiologies hypothesised. This is a retrospective review of 4 diabetic patients who presented over six months with diabetic bullae; the condition may therefore not be as rare as commonly believed. All the patients had early surgical debridement followed by topical negative pressure wound dressings. A multidisciplinary team that included vascular surgeons, diabetologists, diabetic foot care team, wound care team, physiotherapists and occupational therapists managed the patients and none of them required amputations. We propose an alternative way of managing these patients with early surgical debridement followed by topical negative pressure wound dressing.
    • Diabetic foot ulcer or pressure ulcer? That is the question

      Vowden, Peter; Vowden, Kath (2016)
      The establishment of a correct diagnosis links care to established guidelines and underpins all subsequent therapeutic activity. Problems can arise when definitions of disease overlap, as is the case with diabetic foot ulceration and pressure ulcers on the foot occurring in people with diabetes. In such cases, clinicians must ensure that patients receive a care bundle that recognises both the wound causation (pressure and shear) and the underlying pathology (diabetic neuropathy, potential foot architecture disruption and ischaemia). All patients with diabetes that have foot ulceration, irrespective of wound aetiology should, therefore, be seen by the multidisciplinary diabetic foot team. Care can then be optimised to include appropriate assessments, including assessment of peripheral perfusion, correct offloading, appropriate diabetic management, and general foot and skin care.
    • Diagnostic Care Pathways in Dementia: A review of the involvement of primary care in practice and innovation

      Wells, C.E.; Smith, Sarah J. (2017)
      Objectives: Increasing diagnostic rates of dementia is a national health priority; to meet this priority, improvement needs to be made to diagnostic services. It has been increasingly recognized that primary can play a significant role in the diagnostic journey for people with dementia, with some diagnostic services entirely located in primary care. This article reviews the extent of the involvement of primary care in diagnostic care pathways for people presenting with memory complaints within England, and presents examples of innovative approaches, which may be of interest to practitioners. Method: A rapid review was undertaken to identify articles outlining diagnostic care pathways for dementia involving primary care in England. Results: Six articles relating to pathway evaluations and innovative approaches involving primary care were deemed suitable for inclusion in the review. Conclusions: The review found examples of diagnostic pathways and innovative practices being implemented in in primary care. These practices aligned to the strategic ambitions of the National Dementia Strategy. However, it was widely acknowledged that there is a need to improve postdiagnostic pathways; in particular, access to postdiagnostic support. This issue is being reflected in contemporary policy initiatives such as the Department of Health’s 2016 Joint Declaration on postdiagnostic dementia care and support.