• Cancelled surgeries and payment by results in the English National Health Service

      McIntosh, Bryan; Cookson, G.; Jones, S. (2012)
      OBJECTIVES: To model the frequency of 'last minute' cancellations of planned elective procedures in the English NHS with respect to the patient and provider factors that led to these cancellations. METHODS: A dataset of 5,288,604 elective patients spell in the English NHS from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2007 was extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics. A binary dependent variable indicating whether or not a patient had a Health Resource Group coded as S22--'Planned elective procedure not carried out'--was modeled using a probit regression estimated via maximum likelihood including patient, case and hospital level covariates. RESULTS: Longer waiting times and being admitted on a Monday were associated with a greater rate of cancelled procedures. Male patients, patients from lower socio-economic groups and older patients had higher rates of cancelled procedures. There was significant variation in cancellation rates between hospitals; Foundation Trusts and private facilities had the lowest cancellation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed on why Foundation Trusts exhibit lower cancellation rates. Hospitals with relatively high cancellation rates should be encouraged to tackle this problem. Further evidence is needed on whether hospitals are more likely to cancel operations where the procedure tariff is lower than the S22 tariff as this creates a perverse incentive to cancel. Understanding the underlying causes of why male, older and patients from lower socio-economic groups are more likely to have their operations cancelled is important to inform the appropriate policy response. This research suggests that interventions designed to reduce cancellation rates should be targeted to high-cancellation groups.
    • Cohort Profile: the Born in Bradford multi-ethnic family cohort study

      Wright, J.; Small, Neil A.; Raynor, P.; Tuffnell, D.J.; Bhopal, R.S.; Cameron, N.; Fairley, L.; Lawlor, D.A.; Parslow, Roger C.; Petherick, E.S.; et al. (2013)
      The Born in Bradford cohort study was established in 2007 to examine how genetic, nutritional, environmental, behavioural and social factors impact on health and development during childhood, and subsequently adult life in a deprived multi-ethnic population. Between 2007 and 2011, detailed information on socio-economic characteristics, ethnicity and family trees, lifestyle factors, environmental risk factors and physical and mental health has been collected from 12 453 women with 13 776 pregnancies (recruited at ∼28 weeks) and 3448 of their partners. Mothers were weighed and measured at recruitment, and infants have had detailed anthropometric assessment at birth and post-natally up to 2 years of age. Results of an oral glucose tolerance test and lipid profiles were obtained on the mothers during pregnancy at ∼28 weeks gestation, and pregnancy serum, plasma and urine samples have been stored. Cord blood samples have been obtained and stored and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction on 10 000 mother–offspring pairs is nearly completed. The study has a biobank of over 250 000 samples of maternal blood, DNA and urine, cord blood and DNA and paternal saliva. Details of how scientists can access these data are provided in this cohort profile.
    • Cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions and experiences of dementia care mapping "mappers" in the United States and the United Kingdom

      Douglass, C.; Keddie, A.; Brooker, Dawn J.R.; Surr, Claire A. (2010)
      OBJECTIVE: Survey results from 161 respondents trained in dementia care mapping (DCM) in the United States and United Kingdom (82 and 79 respondents, respectively) addressed the following: (a) To what extent are mappers using DCM? (b) How satisfied are mappers with DCM? (c) What affect does DCM have on mappers' attitudes toward their dementia practice? and (d) What challenges are encountered by mappers in the use of DCM? METHOD: Analyses using odds ratios were used to make international and training-level (basic vs. advanced) comparisons. RESULTS: Differences across countries were found in use of DCM and lack of satisfaction using DCM codes. Similarities were found with positive affects of DCM on attitudes and lack of time for DCM. DISCUSSION: Differences in mappers' experiences and perceptions exist across the two countries, warranting increased attention to the cultural contexts within which mappers are situated and how these affect the implementation of DCM within a country.
    • Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee: a serious injury commonly missed

      Pacheco, R.J.; Ayre, Colin A.; Bollen, S.R. (2011)
      We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 patients who had been referred with an injury to the posterolateral corner of the knee to a specialist knee surgeon between 2005 and 2009. These injuries were diagnosed based on a combination of clinical testing and imaging and arthroscopy when available. In all, 51 patients (75%) presented within 24 hours of their injury with a mean presentation at eight days (0 to 20) after the injury. A total of 63 patients (93%) had instability of the knee at presentation. There was a mean delay to the diagnosis of injury to the posterolateral corner of 30 months (0 to 420) from the time of injury. In all, the injuries in 49 patients (72%) were not identified at the time of the initial presentation, with the injury to the posterolateral corner only recognised in those patients who had severe multiple ligamentous injuries. The correct diagnosis, including injury to the posterolateral corner, had only been made in 34 patients (50%) at time of referral to a specialist knee clinic. MRI correctly identified 14 of 15 injuries when performed acutely (within 12 weeks of injury), but this was the case in only four of 15 patients in whom it was performed more than 12 weeks after the injury. Our study highlights a need for greater diligence in the examination and investigation of acute ligamentous injuries at the knee with symptoms of instability, in order to avoid failure to identify the true extent of the injury at the time when anatomical repair is most straightforward.