• Behaviours that prompt primary school teachers to adopt and implement physically active learning: a meta synthesis of qualitative evidence.

      Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morris, J.L.; Norris, E.; Williams, T.L.; Archbold, V.; Kallio, J.; Tammelin, T.H.; Singh, A.; Mota, J.; von Seelen, J.; et al. (2021-11-20)
      Physically active learning (PAL) - integration of movement within delivery of academic content - is a core component of many whole-of-school physical activity approaches. Yet, PAL intervention methods and strategies vary and frequently are not sustained beyond formal programmes. To improve PAL training, a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioural and psychological processes that influence teachers' adoption and implementation of PAL is required. To address this, we conducted a meta-synthesis to synthesise key stakeholders' knowledge of facilitators and barriers to teachers' implementing PAL in schools to improve teacher-focussed PAL interventions in primary (elementary) schools. We conducted a meta-synthesis using a five-stage thematic synthesis approach to; develop a research purpose and aim, identify relevant articles, appraise studies for quality, develop descriptive themes and interpret and synthesise the literature. In the final stage, 14 domains from the Theoretical Domain Framework (TDF) were then aligned to the final analytical themes and subthemes. We identified seven themes and 31 sub-themes from 25 eligible papers. Four themes summarised teacher-level factors: PAL benefits, teachers' beliefs about own capabilities, PAL teacher training, PAL delivery. One theme encompassed teacher and school-level factors: resources. Two themes reflected school and external factors that influence teachers' PAL behaviour: whole-school approach, external factors. Ten (of 14) TDF domains aligned with main themes and sub-themes: Knowledge, Skills, Social/Professional Role and Identity, Beliefs about Capabilities, Beliefs about Consequences, Reinforcement, Goals, Environmental Context and Resources, Social influences and Emotion. Our synthesis illustrates the inherent complexity required to change and sustain teachers' PAL behaviours. Initially, teachers must receive the training, resources and support to develop the capability to implement and adapt PAL. The PAL training programme should progress as teachers' build their experience and capability; content should be 'refreshed' and become more challenging over time. Subsequently, it is imperative to engage all levels of the school community for PAL to be fully integrated into a broader school system. Adequate resources, strong leadership and governance, an engaged activated community and political will are necessary to achieve this, and may not currently exist in most schools.
    • Implementing physically active learning: Future directions for research, policy, and practice

      Daly-Smith, Andrew; Quarmby, T.; Archbold, V.S.J.; Routen, A.C.; Morris, J.L.; Gammon, C.; Bartholomew, J.B.; Resaland, G.K.; Llewellyn, B.; Allman, R.; et al. (2020-01)
      To identify co-produced multi-stakeholder perspectives important for successful widespread physically active learning (PAL) adoption and implementation. A total of 35 stakeholders (policymakers n = 9; commercial education sector, n = 8; teachers, n = 3; researchers, n = 15) attended a design thinking PAL workshop. Participants formed 5 multi-disciplinary groups with at least 1 representative from each stakeholder group. Each group, facilitated by a researcher, undertook 2 tasks: (1) using Post-it Notes, the following question was answered: within the school day, what are the opportunities for learning combined with movement? and (2) structured as a washing-line task, the following question was answered: how can we establish PAL as the norm? All discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive analyses were conducted by 4 authors. After the analyses were complete, the main themes and subthemes were assigned to 4 predetermined categories: (1) PAL design and implementation, (2) priorities for practice, (3) priorities for policy, and (4) priorities for research. The following were the main themes for PAL implementation: opportunities for PAL within the school day, delivery environments, learning approaches, and the intensity of PAL. The main themes for the priorities for practice included teacher confidence and competence, resources to support delivery, and community of practice. The main themes for the policy for priorities included self-governance, the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services, and Skill, policy investment in initial teacher training, and curriculum reform. The main themes for the research priorities included establishing a strong evidence base, school-based PAL implementation, and a whole-systems approach. The present study is the first to identify PAL implementation factors using a combined multi-stakeholder perspective. To achieve wider PAL adoption and implementation, future interventions should be evidence based and address implementation factors at the classroom level (e.g., approaches and delivery environments), school level (e.g., communities of practice), and policy level (e.g., initial teacher training).
    • Teacher Perceptions of Fundamental Movement Skills and their Assessment in Primary Schools

      Eddy, L.H.; Hill, L.J.B.; Mon-Williams, M.; Preston, N.; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Medd, G.; Bingham, D.D. (2021)
      Evidence suggests that children struggle to acquire age-appropriate fundamental movement skills (FMS), despite their importance for facilitating physical activity. This has led to calls for routine school-based screening of children’s FMS. However, there is limited research exploring schools’ capacity to conduct such assessments. This study investigated what factors might affect the adoption and implementation of FMS assessments in primary schools. School staff (n=853) completed an online questionnaire developed using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour (COM-B) model. A majority reported that knowledge of pupils’ FMS ability would be beneficial (65.3%), and 71.8% would assess FMS if support was provided. Barriers included: Capability – few possessed knowledge of FMS (15%); Opportunity – teachers reported 30-60 minutes as acceptable for assessing a class, a substantially shorter period than current assessments require; Motivation – 57.2% stated FMS assessments would increase workload stress. Solutions to these issues are discussed using the COM-B theoretical framework.