• Computer-aided National Early Warning Score to predict the risk of sepsis following emergency medical admission to hospital: a model development and external validation study

      Faisal, Muhammad; Richardson, D.; Scally, Andy J.; Howes, R.; Beatson, K.; Speed, K.; Mohammad, Mohammad A. (2019-04-08)
      Background: In English hospitals, the patient’s vital signs are monitored and summarised into a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). NEWS is more accurate than the quick sepsis related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score at identifying patients with sepsis. We investigate the extent to which the accuracy of the NEWS is enhanced by developing computer-aided NEWS (cNEWS) models. We compared three cNEWS models (M0=NEWS alone; M1=M0 + age + sex; M2=M1 + subcomponents of NEWS + diastolic blood pressure) to predict the risk of sepsis. Methods: All adult emergency medical admissions discharged over 24-months from two acute hospitals (YH–York Hospital for model development; NH–Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital for external model validation). We used a validated Canadian method for defining sepsis from administrative hospital data. Findings: The prevalence of sepsis was lower in YH (4.5%=1596/35807) than NH (8.5%=2983/35161). The c-statistic increased across models (YH: M0: 0.705, M1:0.763, M2:0.777; NH:M0: 0.708, M1:0.777, M2:0.791). At NEWS 5+, sensitivity increased (YH: 47.24% vs 50.56% vs 52.69%; NH: 37.91% vs 43.35% vs 48.07%)., the positive likelihood ratio increased (YH: 2.77 vs 2.99 vs 3.06; NH: 3.18 vs 3.32 vs 3.45) and the positive predictive value increased (YH: 11.44% vs 12.24% vs 12.49%; NH: 22.75% vs 23.55% vs 24.21%). Interpretation: From the three cNEWS models, Model M2 is the most accurate. Since it places no additional data collection burden on clinicians and can be automated, it may now be carefully introduced and evaluated in hospitals with sufficient informatics infrastructure.
    • Impact of the level of sickness on higher mortality in emergency medical admissions to hospital at weekends

      Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Faisal, Muhammad; Richardson, D.; Howes, R.; Beatson, K.; Wright, J.; Speed, K. (2017-10-01)
      Routine administrative data have been used to show that patients admitted to hospitals over the weekend appear to have a higher mortality compared to weekday admissions. Such data do not take the severity of sickness of a patient on admission into account. Our aim was to incorporate a standardized vital signs physiological-based measure of sickness known as the National Early Warning Score to investigate if weekend admissions are: sicker as measured by their index National Early Warning Score; have an increased mortality; and experience longer delays in the recording of their index National Early Warning Score. Methods: We extracted details of all adult emergency medical admissions during 2014 from hospital databases and linked these with electronic National Early Warning Score data in four acute hospitals. We analysed 47,117 emergency admissions after excluding 1657 records, where National Early Warning Score was missing or the first (index) National Early Warning Score was recorded outside ±24 h of the admission time. Results: Emergency medical admissions at the weekend had higher index National Early Warning Score (weekend: 2.53 vs. weekday: 2.30, p
    • The inclusion of delirium in version 2 of the National Early Warning Score will substantially increase the alerts for escalating levels of care: findings from a retrospective database study of emergency medical admissions in two hospitals

      Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Faisal, Muhammad; Richardson, D.; Scally, Andy J.; Howes, R.; Beatson, K.; Irwin, S.; Speed, K. (2019-03-01)
      Background The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is being replaced with NEWS2 which adds 3 points for new confusion or delirium. We estimated the impact of adding delirium on the number of medium/high level alerts that are triggers to escalate care. Methods Analysis of emergency medical admissions in two acute hospitals (York Hospital (YH) and Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Foundation Trust hospitals (NH)) in England. Twenty per cent were randomly assigned to have delirium. Results The number of emergency admissions (YH: 35584; NH: 35795), mortality (YH: 5.7%; NH: 5.5%), index NEWS (YH: 2.5; NH: 2.1) and numbers of NEWS recorded (YH: 879193; NH: 884072) were similar in each hospital. The mean number of patients with medium level alerts per day increased from 55.3 (NEWS) to 69.5 (NEWS2), a 25.7% increase in YH and 64.1 (NEWS) to 77.4 (NEWS2), a 20.7% increase in NH. The mean number of patients with high level alerts per day increased from 27.3 (NEWS) to 34.4 (NEWS2), a 26.0% increase in YH and 29.9 (NEWS) to 37.7 (NEWS2), a 26.1% increase in NH. Conclusions The addition of delirium in NEWS2 will have a substantial increase in medium and high level alerts in hospitalised emergency medical patients. Rigorous evaluation of NEWS2 is required before widespread implementation because the extent to which staff can cope with this increase without adverse consequences remains unknown.
    • Predictive accuracy of enhanced versions of the on-admission National Early Warning Score in estimating the risk of COVID-19 for unplanned admission to hospital: a retrospective development and validation study

      Faisal, Muhammad; Mohammed, A. Mohammed; Richardson, D.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Fiori, M.; Beatson, K. (2021-09-13)
      The novel coronavirus SARS-19 produces 'COVID-19' in patients with symptoms. COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital require early assessment and care including isolation. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and its updated version NEWS2 is a simple physiological scoring system used in hospitals, which may be useful in the early identification of COVID-19 patients. We investigate the performance of multiple enhanced NEWS2 models in predicting the risk of COVID-19. Our cohort included unplanned adult medical admissions discharged over 3 months (11 March 2020 to 13 June 2020 ) from two hospitals (YH for model development; SH for external model validation). We used logistic regression to build multiple prediction models for the risk of COVID-19 using the first electronically recorded NEWS2 within ± 24 hours of admission. Model M0' included NEWS2; model M1' included NEWS2 + age + sex, and model M2' extends model M1' with subcomponents of NEWS2 (including diastolic blood pressure + oxygen flow rate + oxygen scale). Model performance was evaluated according to discrimination (c statistic), calibration (graphically), and clinical usefulness at NEWS2 ≥ 5. The prevalence of COVID-19 was higher in SH (11.0 %=277/2520) than YH (8.7 %=343/3924) with a higher first NEWS2 scores ( SH 3.2 vs YH 2.8) but similar in-hospital mortality (SH 8.4 % vs YH 8.2 %). The c-statistics for predicting the risk of COVID-19 for models M0',M1',M2' in the development dataset were: M0': 0.71 (95 %CI 0.68-0.74); M1': 0.67 (95 %CI 0.64-0.70) and M2': 0.78 (95 %CI 0.75-0.80)). For the validation datasets the c-statistics were: M0' 0.65 (95 %CI 0.61-0.68); M1': 0.67 (95 %CI 0.64-0.70) and M2': 0.72 (95 %CI 0.69-0.75) ). The calibration slope was similar across all models but Model M2' had the highest sensitivity (M0' 44 % (95 %CI 38-50 %); M1' 53 % (95 %CI 47-59 %) and M2': 57 % (95 %CI 51-63 %)) and specificity (M0' 75 % (95 %CI 73-77 %); M1' 72 % (95 %CI 70-74 %) and M2': 76 % (95 %CI 74-78 %)) for the validation dataset at NEWS2 ≥ 5. Model M2' appears to be reasonably accurate for predicting the risk of COVID-19. It may be clinically useful as an early warning system at the time of admission especially to triage large numbers of unplanned hospital admissions.