• Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: protocol for the recruitment phase

      Raynor, Pauline; Born in Bradford Collaborative Group (2008)
      BACKGROUND: Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. METHODS: Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. A wide range of hospital and community sources is being accessed to provide data for the women and children. Data are checked for accuracy and consistency. CONCLUSION: Born in Bradford will increase understanding of the factors that contribute to health and wellbeing, and identify factors that influence differences in them between people of Pakistani and European origin.
    • Cancelled surgeries and payment by results in the English National Health Service

      McIntosh, Bryan; Cookson, G.; Jones, S. (2012)
      OBJECTIVES: To model the frequency of 'last minute' cancellations of planned elective procedures in the English NHS with respect to the patient and provider factors that led to these cancellations. METHODS: A dataset of 5,288,604 elective patients spell in the English NHS from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2007 was extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics. A binary dependent variable indicating whether or not a patient had a Health Resource Group coded as S22--'Planned elective procedure not carried out'--was modeled using a probit regression estimated via maximum likelihood including patient, case and hospital level covariates. RESULTS: Longer waiting times and being admitted on a Monday were associated with a greater rate of cancelled procedures. Male patients, patients from lower socio-economic groups and older patients had higher rates of cancelled procedures. There was significant variation in cancellation rates between hospitals; Foundation Trusts and private facilities had the lowest cancellation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed on why Foundation Trusts exhibit lower cancellation rates. Hospitals with relatively high cancellation rates should be encouraged to tackle this problem. Further evidence is needed on whether hospitals are more likely to cancel operations where the procedure tariff is lower than the S22 tariff as this creates a perverse incentive to cancel. Understanding the underlying causes of why male, older and patients from lower socio-economic groups are more likely to have their operations cancelled is important to inform the appropriate policy response. This research suggests that interventions designed to reduce cancellation rates should be targeted to high-cancellation groups.
    • Clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of three alternative compression systems used in the management of venous leg ulcers

      Guest, J.F.; Gerrish, A.; Ayoub, N.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2015)
      OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of using a two-layer cohesive compression bandage (TLCCB; Coban 2) compared with a two-layer compression system (TLCS; Ktwo) and a four-layer compression system (FLCS; Profore) in treating venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in clinical practice in the UK, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS). METHOD: This was a retrospective analysis of the case records of VLU patients, randomly extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database (a nationally representative database of clinical practice among patients registered with general practitioners in the UK), who were treated with either TLCCB (n=250), TLCS (n=250) or FLCS (n=175). Clinical outcomes and health-care resource use (and costs) over six months after starting treatment with each compression system were estimated. Differences in outcomes and resource use between treatments were adjusted for differences in baseline covariates. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 75 years old and 57% were female. The mean time with a VLU was 6-7 months and the mean initial wound size was 77-85 cm2. The overall VLU healing rate, irrespective of bandage type, was 44% over the six months' study period. In the TLCCB group, 51% of wounds had healed by six months compared with 40% (p=0.03) and 28% (p=0.001) in the TLCS and FLCS groups, respectively. The mean time to healing was 2.5 months. Patients in the TLCCB group experienced better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over six months (0.374 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient), compared with the TLCS (0.368 QALYs per patient) and FLCS (0.353 QALYs per patient). The mean six-monthly NHS management cost was pound2,413, pound2,707 and pound2,648 per patient in the TLCCB, TLCS and FLCS groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite the systems studied reporting similar compression levels when tested in controlled studies, real-world evidence demonstrates that initiating treatment with TLCCB, compared with the other two compression systems, affords a more cost-effective use of NHS-funded resources in clinical practice, since it resulted in an increased healing rate, better HRQoL and a reduction in NHS management cost. The evidence also highlighted the lack of continuity between clinicians managing a wound, the inconsistent nature of the administered treatments and the lack of specialist involvement, all of which may impact on healing. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This study was supported by an unrestricted research grant from 3M Health Care, UK. 3M Health Care had no influence on the study design, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, or on the writing of, and decision to submit for publication, the manuscript.
    • Cohort Profile: the Born in Bradford multi-ethnic family cohort study

      Wright, J.; Small, Neil A.; Raynor, P.; Tuffnell, D.J.; Bhopal, R.S.; Cameron, N.; Fairley, L.; Lawlor, D.A.; Parslow, Roger C.; Petherick, E.S.; et al. (2013)
      The Born in Bradford cohort study was established in 2007 to examine how genetic, nutritional, environmental, behavioural and social factors impact on health and development during childhood, and subsequently adult life in a deprived multi-ethnic population. Between 2007 and 2011, detailed information on socio-economic characteristics, ethnicity and family trees, lifestyle factors, environmental risk factors and physical and mental health has been collected from 12 453 women with 13 776 pregnancies (recruited at ∼28 weeks) and 3448 of their partners. Mothers were weighed and measured at recruitment, and infants have had detailed anthropometric assessment at birth and post-natally up to 2 years of age. Results of an oral glucose tolerance test and lipid profiles were obtained on the mothers during pregnancy at ∼28 weeks gestation, and pregnancy serum, plasma and urine samples have been stored. Cord blood samples have been obtained and stored and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction on 10 000 mother–offspring pairs is nearly completed. The study has a biobank of over 250 000 samples of maternal blood, DNA and urine, cord blood and DNA and paternal saliva. Details of how scientists can access these data are provided in this cohort profile.
    • Coping with challenges to memory in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: observation of behaviour in response to analogues of everyday situations

      Oyebode, Jan R.; Motala, J.R.; Hardy, R.M.; Oliver, C. (2009)
      OBJECTIVES: To describe ways of coping in people with mild to moderate AD when faced with situations that are challenging to their memory. METHOD: Twenty-four participants (12 with mild and 12 with moderate AD) were presented with a set of seven tasks that were analogues of everyday situations that tax memory. The participants' responses were videotaped and analysed. RESULTS: Participants' coping responses were grouped into seven categories to best reflect the main strategies. Individuals used a significantly greater frequency of effortful problem solving (self-reliance and reliance on carers) (p < 0.01) than other ways of coping. Positive acknowledgement of memory difficulties was used significantly more than negative acknowledgement and defensive coping (concealment and avoidance) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study used novel methodology of observation of behavioural responses in analogues of everyday situations. The predominance of effortful problem-solving emphasizes the role of the person with AD as an active agent in the management of memory loss. An emphasis in previous literature on defensive coping and denial is counter-balanced by the finding that participants commonly coped by acknowledging their memory impairment.
    • Effect of a patient blood management programme on preoperative anaemia, transfusion rate, and outcome after primary hip or knee arthroplasty: a quality improvement cycle

      Kotze, A.; Carter, L. A.; Scally, Andy J. (2012)
      BACKGROUND: There are few data on the associations between anaemia, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT), patient blood management, and outcome after arthroplasty in the UK. National agencies nevertheless instruct NHS Trusts to implement blood conservation measures including preoperative anaemia management. Internationally, blood management programmes show encouraging results. METHODS: We retrospectively audited 717 primary hip or knee arthroplasties in a UK general hospital and conducted regression analyses to identify outcome predictors. We used these data to modify previously published algorithms for UK practice and audited its introduction prospectively. The retrospective audit group served as a control. RESULTS: Preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) concentration predicted ABT (odds ratio 0.25 per 1 g dl(-1), P<0.001). It also predicted the length of stay (LOS, effect size -0.7 days per 1 g dl(-1), P=0.004) independently of ABT, including in non-anaemic patients. Patient blood management implementation was associated with lower ABT rates for hip (23-7%, P<0.001) and knee (7-0%, P=0.001) arthroplasty. LOS for total hip replacement and total knee replacement decreased from 6 (5-8) days to 5 (3-7) and 4 (3-6) days, respectively, after algorithm implementation (P<0.001). The all-cause re-admission rate within 90 days decreased from 13.5% (97/717) before to 8.2% (23/281) after algorithm implementation (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that preoperative Hb predicts markers of arthroplasty outcome in UK practice. A systematic approach to optimize Hb mass before arthroplasty and limit Hb loss perioperatively was associated with improved outcome up to 90 days after discharge.
    • Effects of gaze strategy on standing postural stability in older multifocal wearers

      Johnson, Louise; Elliott, David B.; Buckley, John G. (2009)
      BACKGROUND: Postural instability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. This experiment investigated the effects of different gaze strategies on postural stability in older people, when using distance single-vision compared with multifocal (progressive addition lens and bifocal) spectacles. METHODS: Eighteen healthy older habitual multifocal spectacle-wearers (mean age 72.1 +/- 4.0 years) participated in a randomised, cross-over study. Postural stability during quiet standing was assessed as the root mean square excursion in the centre of pressure (RMS-COP) in the antero-posterior direction. Ground reaction force data were collected (for 30 seconds), while subjects viewed one of two visual targets (one square metre) of different spatial frequencies and contrasts, while wearing either distance single-vision or multifocal (progressive addition and bifocal) spectacles. The visual targets were positioned either ahead at eye-level or on the ground (viewing distance 2.06 metres) and viewed under the following head-gaze conditions; 'head neutral-gaze forward', 'head flexed-gaze down' and 'head neutral-gaze down'. RESULTS: The type of spectacles worn or the target viewed had no significant effect on postural stability but postural stability deteriorated (antero-posterior RMS-COP excursion increased) in the 'head neutral-gaze down' compared with the 'head flexed-gaze down' and 'head neutral-gaze forward' conditions (5.9, 5.5 and 5.0 mm respectively, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Multifocal use had no effect on standing postural stability. Irrespective of spectacles worn, when fixating a visual target positioned at ground level, postural stability was better in the 'head flexed-gaze down' condition compared with the 'head neutral-gaze down' condition. A useful strategy to reduce falling in the older person might be to advise multifocal and distance single-vision spectacle-wearers to flex their heads rather than just lower their eyes when looking downwards.
    • Emergency ultrasound in the prehospital setting: the impact of environment on examination outcomes

      Snaith, Beverly; Hardy, Maryann L.; Walker, A. (2011)
      This study aimed to compare ultrasound examinations performed within a land ambulance (stationary and moving) with those completed in a simulated emergency department (ED) to determine the feasibility of undertaking ultrasound examinations within the UK prehospital care environment. The findings suggest that abdominal aortic aneurysm and extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma emergency ultrasound examinations can be performed in the stationary or moving land ambulance environment to a standard consistent with those performed in the hospital ED.
    • Excellent cross-cultural validity, intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index in patients after stroke undergoing rehabilitation

      Roorda, L.D.; Green, J.R.; De Kluis, K.R.; Molenaar, I.W.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Smith, J.; Geurts, A.C. (2008)
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-cultural validity of international Dutch-English comparisons when using the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch RMI. METHODS: Cross-cultural validity was studied in a combined data-set of Dutch and English patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke, who were assessed with the Dutch version of the RMI and the original English RMI, respectively. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate unidimensionality, monotone homogeneity model fit, and differential item functioning between the Dutch and the English RMI. Intra-test reliability and construct validity were studied in the Dutch patients by calculating the reliability coefficient and correlating the Dutch RMI and the Dutch Barthel Index. RESULTS: The RMI was completed for Dutch (n = 200) and English (n = 420) patients after stroke. The unidimensionality and monotone homogeneity model fit of the RMI were excellent: combined Dutch-English data-set (coefficient H = 0.91); Dutch data-set (coefficient H = 0.93); English data-set (coefficient H = 0.89). No differential item functioning was found between the Dutch and the English RMI. The intra-test reliability of the Dutch RMI was excellent (coefficient rho = 0.97). In a sub-sample of patients (n = 91), the Dutch RMI correlated strongly with the Dutch Barthel Index (Spearman's correlation coefficient rho = 0.84). CONCLUSION: The Dutch RMI allows valid international Dutch-English comparisons, and has excellent intra-test reliability and construct validity.
    • Exploring the delivery of antiretroviral therapy for symptomatic HIV in Swaziland: threats to the successful treatment and safety of outpatients attending regional and district clinics

      Armitage, Gerry R.; Hodgson, Ian J.; Wright, J.; Bailey, K.; Mkhwana, E. (2011)
      AIM: To examine the safety and acceptability of providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a resource poor setting. DESIGN: Two-stage observational and qualitative study. SETTING: Rural hospital in Southern Africa. METHODS: Structured observation using failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of the drug supply, dispensing, prescribing and administration processes. The findings from the FMEA were explored further in qualitative interviews with eight health professionals involved in the delivery of ART. To obtain a patient perspective, a stratified sample of 14 patients receiving ART was also interviewed. RESULTS: Key vulnerabilities in the process of ART provision include supply problems, poor packaging and labelling, inadequate knowledge among staff and lack of staff. Key barriers to successful patient adherence include transport inconsistency in supply and personal financial difficulties. There is, however, strong evidence of patient commitment and adherence. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION: Medication safety is relatively unexplored in the developing world. This study reveals an encouraging resilience in the health system and adherence among patients in the delivery of complex ART. The vulnerabilities identified, however, undermine patient safety and effectiveness of ART. There are implications for drug manufacturers; international aid agencies funding and supplying ART; and local practitioners. FMEA can help identify potential vulnerabilities and inform safety improvement interventions.
    • Item hierarchy-based analysis of the Rivermead Mobility Index resulted in improved interpretation and enabled faster scoring in patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke

      Roorda, L.D.; Green, J.R.; Houwink, A.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Smith, J.; Molenaar, I.W.; Geurts, A.C. (2012)
      OBJECTIVE: To enable improved interpretation of the total score and faster scoring of the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) by studying item ordering or hierarchy and formulating start-and-stop rules in patients after stroke. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Rehabilitation center in the Netherlands; stroke rehabilitation units and the community in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Item hierarchy of the RMI was studied in an initial group of patients (n=620; mean age +/- SD, 69.2+/-12.5y; 297 [48%] men; 304 [49%] left hemisphere lesion, and 269 [43%] right hemisphere lesion), and the adequacy of the item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules was checked in a second group of patients (n=237; mean age +/- SD, 60.0+/-11.3y; 139 [59%] men; 103 [44%] left hemisphere lesion, and 93 [39%] right hemisphere lesion) undergoing rehabilitation after stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate the fit of the double monotonicity model, indicating hierarchical item ordering. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the scores based on the start-and-stop rules were calculated to check the adequacy of these rules. RESULTS: The RMI had good fit of the double monotonicity model (coefficient H(T)=.87). The interpretation of the total score improved. Item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules were formulated. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the score based on the recommended start-and-stop rules were 3% and 5%, respectively. Ten of the original 15 items had to be scored after applying the start-and-stop rules. CONCLUSIONS: Item hierarchy was established, enabling improved interpretation and faster scoring of the RMI.
    • Metamemory and prospective memory in Parkinson's disease

      Smith, Sarah J.; Souchay, C.; Moulin, C.J.A. (2011)
      OBJECTIVE: Metamemory is integral for strategizing about memory intentions. This study investigated the prospective memory (PM) deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD) from a metamemory viewpoint, with the aim of examining whether metamemory deficits might contribute to PM deficits in PD. METHOD: Sixteen patients with PD and 16 healthy older adult controls completed a time-based PM task (initiating a key press at two specified times during an ongoing task), and an event-based PM task (initiating a key press in response to animal words during an ongoing task). To measure metamemory participants were asked to predict and postdict their memory performance before and after completing the tasks, as well as complete a self-report questionnaire regarding their everyday memory function. RESULTS: The PD group had no impairment, relative to controls, on the event-based task, but had prospective (initiating the key press) and retrospective (recalling the instructions) impairments on the time-based task. The PD group also had metamemory impairments on the time-based task; they were inaccurate at predicting their performance before doing the task but, became accurate when making postdictions. This suggests impaired metamemory knowledge but preserved metamemory monitoring. There were no group differences regarding PD patients' self-reported PM performance on the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce previous findings that PM impairments in PD are dependent on task type. Several accounts of PM failures in time-based tasks are presented, in particular, ways in which mnemonic and metacognitive deficits may contribute to the difficulties observed on the time-based task.
    • Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee: a serious injury commonly missed

      Pacheco, R.J.; Ayre, Colin A.; Bollen, S.R. (2011)
      We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 patients who had been referred with an injury to the posterolateral corner of the knee to a specialist knee surgeon between 2005 and 2009. These injuries were diagnosed based on a combination of clinical testing and imaging and arthroscopy when available. In all, 51 patients (75%) presented within 24 hours of their injury with a mean presentation at eight days (0 to 20) after the injury. A total of 63 patients (93%) had instability of the knee at presentation. There was a mean delay to the diagnosis of injury to the posterolateral corner of 30 months (0 to 420) from the time of injury. In all, the injuries in 49 patients (72%) were not identified at the time of the initial presentation, with the injury to the posterolateral corner only recognised in those patients who had severe multiple ligamentous injuries. The correct diagnosis, including injury to the posterolateral corner, had only been made in 34 patients (50%) at time of referral to a specialist knee clinic. MRI correctly identified 14 of 15 injuries when performed acutely (within 12 weeks of injury), but this was the case in only four of 15 patients in whom it was performed more than 12 weeks after the injury. Our study highlights a need for greater diligence in the examination and investigation of acute ligamentous injuries at the knee with symptoms of instability, in order to avoid failure to identify the true extent of the injury at the time when anatomical repair is most straightforward.
    • Service user involvement in cancer care: the impact on service users

      Cotterell, P.; Harlow, G.; Morris, C.; Beresford, P.; Hanley, B.; Sargeant, Anita R.; Sitzia, J.; Staley, K. (2011)
      BACKGROUND: Service user involvement is embedded in the United Kingdom's National Health Service, but knowledge about the impact of involvement on service users, such as the benefits and challenges of involvement, is scant. Our research addresses this gap. OBJECTIVE: To explore the personal impact of involvement on the lives of service users affected by cancer. DESIGN: We conducted eight focus groups with user groups supplemented by nine face-to-face interviews with involved individuals active at a local, regional and national level. Thematic analysis was conducted both independently and collectively. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four participants, engaged in involvement activities in cancer services, palliative care and research, were recruited across Great Britain. RESULTS: We identified three main themes: (i) 'Expectations and motivations for involvement'- the desire to improve services and the need for user groups to have a clear purpose, (ii) 'Positive aspects of involvement'- support provided by user groups and assistance to live well with cancer and (iii) 'Challenging aspects of involvement'- insensitivities and undervaluing of involvement by staff. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that involvement has the capacity to produce varied and significant personal impacts for involved people. Involvement can be planned and implemented in ways that increase these impacts and that mediates challenges for those involved. Key aspects to increase positive impact for service users include the value service providers attach to involvement activities, the centrality with which involvement is embedded in providers' activities, and the capacity of involvement to influence policy, planning, service delivery, research and/or practice.
    • Test-retest variability of Randot stereoacuity measures gathered in an unselected sample of UK primary school children

      Adler, P.; Scally, Andy J.; Barrett, Brendan T. (2012)
      AIM: To determine the test-retest reliability of the Randot stereoacuity test when used as part of vision screening in schools. METHODS: Randot stereoacuity (graded-circles) and logMAR visual acuity measures were gathered in an unselected sample of 139 children (aged 4-12, mean 8.1+/-2.1 years) in two schools. Randot testing was repeated on two occasions (average interval between successive tests 8 days, range: 1-21 days). Three Randot scores were obtained in 97.8% of children. RESULTS: Randot stereoacuity improved by an average of one plate (ie, one test level) on repeat testing but was little changed when tested on the third occasion. Within-subject variability was up to three test levels on repeat testing. When stereoacuity was categorised as 'fine', 'intermediate' or 'coarse', the greatest variability was found among younger children who exhibited 'intermediate' or 'coarse'/nil stereopsis on initial testing. Whereas 90.8% of children with 'fine' stereopsis (</=50 arc-seconds) on the first test exhibited 'fine' stereopsis on both subsequent tests, only approximately 16% of children with 'intermediate' (>50 but </=140 arc-seconds) or 'coarse'/nil (>/=200 arc-seconds) stereoacuity on initial testing exhibited stable test results on repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS: Children exhibiting abnormal stereoacuity on initial testing are very likely to exhibit a normal result when retested. The value of a single, abnormal Randot graded-circles stereoacuity measure from school screening is therefore questionable.
    • The Rivermead Mobility Index allows valid comparisons between subgroups of patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke who differ with respect to age, sex, or side of lesion

      Roorda, L.D.; Green, J.R.; Houwink, A.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Smith, J.; Molenaar, I.W.; Geurts, A.C. (2012)
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate differential item functioning or item bias of the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and its impact on the drawing of valid comparisons with the RMI between subgroups of patients after stroke who differ with respect to age, sex, or side of lesion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A rehabilitation center in the Netherlands and 2 stroke rehabilitation units and the wider community in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The RMI was completed for patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke (N=620; mean age +/- SD, 69.2+/-12.5y; 297 [48%] men; 269 [43%] right hemisphere lesion, and 304 [49%] left hemisphere lesion). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate differential item functioning of the RMI between subgroups of patients who differed with respect to age (young vs older), sex (men vs women), and side of stroke lesion (right vs left hemisphere). RESULTS: No differential item functioning was found for any of the comparison subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The RMI allows valid comparisons to be made between subgroups of patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke who differ with respect to age, sex, or side of lesion.
    • Validity of dementia care mapping on a neuro-rehabilitation ward: Q-methodology with staff and patients

      Westbrook, J.L.; McIntosh, C.J.; Sheldrick, R.; Surr, Claire A.; Hare, D.J. (2013)
      BACKGROUND: Measuring the quality of care for people using neuro-rehabilitation services is a complex area requiring reliable methods that account for variable communication abilities/cognitive functioning. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is an observational method widely used in dementia care to improve person-centred care, which may be usefully applied to neuro-rehabilitation settings. Evaluation is vital to determine the tool's acceptability in this setting. PURPOSE: To explore the views of staff/patients regarding whether the use of DCM is acceptable in a neuro-rehabilitation setting. METHOD: DCM was conducted on an acute neuro-rehabilitation ward. Q-methodology, a technique for extracting subjective opinions, was used with 23 staff and 10 patients on the ward to evaluate the acceptability of DCM. RESULTS: Factor analysis was performed separately for staff and patient Q-sorts. Each found a "consensus" factor where all participants indicated positive acceptability for the use of DCM. Further exploratory factors indicated that some staff/patients had additional views/concerns that were not captured by the first consensus factor. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this preliminary study are promising and indicate that DCM is potentially an acceptable tool to use in acute neuro-rehabilitation. Further research is needed to explore the acceptability of this tool more widely across neuro-rehabilitation settings. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Person-centred care is widely acknowledged as being important in all care settings, including neurorehabilitation. Dementia Care Mapping was deemed to be an acceptable approach for improving the quality of person-centred care on the basis of the views of staff and patients in a neurorehabilitation ward. Dementia Care Mapping, with adaptations for neurorehabilitation settings, successfully provides an acceptable framework for measuring and improving the quality of person-centred care in this setting.