• How do team experience and relationships shape new divisions of labour in robot-assisted surgery? A realist investigation

      Randell, Rebecca; Greenhalgh, J.; Hindmarsh, J.; Honey, S.; Pearman, A.; Alvarado, Natasha; Dowding, D. (2021-03-01)
      Safe and successful surgery depends on effective teamwork between professional groups, each playing their part in a complex division of labour. This article reports the first empirical examination of how introduction of robot-assisted surgery changes the division of labour within surgical teams and impacts teamwork and patient safety. Data collection and analysis was informed by realist principles. Interviews were conducted with surgical teams across nine UK hospitals and, in a multi-site case study across four hospitals, data were collected using a range of methods, including ethnographic observation, video recording and semi-structured interviews. Our findings reveal that as the robot enables the surgeon to do more, the surgical assistant's role becomes less clearly defined. Robot-assisted surgery also introduces new tasks for the surgical assistant and scrub practitioner, in terms of communicating information to the surgeon. However, the use of robot-assisted surgery does not redistribute work in a uniform way; contextual factors of individual experience and team relationships shape changes to the division of labour. For instance, in some situations, scrub practitioners take on the role of supporting inexperienced surgical assistants. These changes in the division of labour do not persist when team members return to operations that are not robot-assisted. This study contributes to wider literature on divisions of labour in healthcare and how this is impacted by the introduction of new technologies. In particular, we emphasise the need to pay attention to often neglected micro-level contextual factors. This can highlight behaviours that can be promoted to benefit patient care.
    • The role and experiences of responders attending the sudden or unexpected death of a child: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

      Tatterton, Michael J.; Scholes, Sarah L.; Henderson, S.; Croucher, Fiona; Gibson, Carla (2022-01)
      The infrequency of sudden deaths means that professionals have limited exposure, making it difficult to gain experience and feel confident in their role. This meta-synthesis aims to synthesise qualitative research on the experience of professionals responding to cases of sudden or unexpected death. A systematic literature search was conducted using Academic Search Complete, CINHAL, Embase, psycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science, identifying ten papers for inclusion. Studies were appraised and synthesized using the principles of meta‐synthesis. Four superordinate themes were identified: perceptions of role, experience on scene, approaches to coping, and barriers to support. Findings suggest the way responders perceive their role and their experience on scene affect the approach taken to tasks and coping strategies used. The complexity of experience is often not acknowledged by responders or their colleagues. Experiences are compounded by cumulative factors which were expressed by different professional groups and across settings. Several barriers relating to workforce culture within organisations were identified, alongside the implications these have on staff wellbeing and the impact on bereaved families.