• Dementia Care Mapping (DCM): initial validation of DCM 8 in UK field trials.

      Brooker, Dawn J.R.; Surr, Claire A. (2006)
      Objectives This paper describes DCM 8 and reports on the initial validation study of DCM 8. Methods Between 2001-2003, a series of international expert working groups were established to examine various aspects of DCM with the intention of revising and refining it. During 2004-2005 the revised tool (DCM 8) was piloted in seven service settings in the UK and validated against DCM 7th edition. Results At a group score level, WIB scores and spread of Behavioural Category Codes were very similar, suggesting that group scores are comparable between DCM 7 and 8. Interviews with mappers and focus groups with staff teams suggested that DCM 8 was preferable to DCM 7th edition because of the clarification and simplification of codes; the addition of new codes relevant to person-centred care; and the replacement of Positive Events with a more structured recording of Personal Enhancers. Conclusions DCM 8 appears comparable with DCM 7th edition in terms of data produced and is well received by mappers and dementia care staff.
    • Preservation of self in people with dementia living in residential care: A socio-biographical approach.

      Surr, Claire A. (2006)
      The maintenance of self in dementia is associated with socio-biographical factors. The theoretical literature suggests that interpersonal relationships, the social context, and the generation of stories are important in maintenance of self. Empirical research on self in dementia supports this but has been predominantly conducted with participants living in the community. Living in residential care brings additional threats to self. This paper presents a study examining the relevance of a socio-biographical theory of self to people with dementia living in residential care. Between 3 and 8 tape-recorded and transcribed unstructured interviews were conducted with 14 people with dementia who were living in 4 residential homes throughout England and Wales, over a 6-24-month period. They were analysed using an interpretive biographical methodology. The results provide evidence to support the relevance of a socio-biographical theory of self to this group. Relationships with family, other residents and care home staff were important for maintenance of self. Social roles related to work, being part of a family, caring for others and being cared for, were particularly significant for self in this group. The creation of a life story, stories of selected life events, and the telling of stories with possible metaphorical interpretations were also important for the maintenance of self. The results also suggest that psychological and embodied factors may be relevant to the self in dementia. The study suggests that staff working in residential homes should consider these elements if they are to provide care that supports maintenance of self for people with dementia. Implications for future research are discussed.