• Spatial Distribution of Sulfate Concentration in Groundwater of South-Punjab, Pakistan

      Mubarak, N.; Hussain, I.; Faisal, Muhammad; Hussain, T.; Shad, M.Y.; AbdEl-Salam, N.M.; Shabbir, J. (2015)
      Sulfate causes various health issues for human if on average daily intake of sulfate is more than 500 mg from drinking-water, air, and food. Moreover, the presence of sulfate in rainwater causes acid rains which has harmful effects on animals and plants. Food is the major source of sulfate intake; however, in areas of South-Punjab, Pakistan, the drinking-water containing high levels of sulfate may constitute the principal source of intake. The spatial behavior of sulfate in groundwater is recorded for South-Punjab province, Pakistan. The spatial dependence of the response variable (sulfate) is modeled by using various variograms models that are estimated by maximum likelihood method, restricted maximum likelihood method, ordinary least squares, and weighted least squares. The parameters of estimated variogram models are utilized in ordinary kriging, universal kriging, Bayesian kriging with constant trend, and varying trend and the above methods are used for interpolation of sulfate concentration. The K-fold cross validation is used to measure the performances of variogram models and interpolation methods. Bayesian kriging with a constant trend produces minimum root mean square prediction error than other interpolation methods. Concentration of sulfate in drinking water within the study area is increasing to the Northern part, and health risks are really high due to poor quality of water.