• Barriers and facilitators of successful deprescribing as described by older patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians: a qualitative interview study

      Peat, George W.; Fylan, Beth; Marques, Iuri; Rayner, D.K.; Breen, Liz; Olaniyan, Janice; Alldred, David P. (2022-03)
      Objective To explore the barriers/facilitators to deprescribing in primary care in England from the perspectives of clinicians, patients living with frailty who reside at home, and their informal carers, drawing on the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify behavioural components associated with barriers/facilitators of the process. Design Exploratory qualitative study. Setting General practice (primary care) in England. Participants 9 patients aged 65+ living with frailty who attended a consultation to reduce or stop a medicine/s. 3 informal carers of patients living with frailty. 14 primary care clinicians including general practitioners, practice pharmacists and advanced nurse practitioners. Methods Qualitative semistructured interviews took place with patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians. Patients (n=9) and informal carers (n=3) were interviewed two times: immediately after deprescribing and 5/6 weeks later. Clinicians (n=14) were interviewed once. In total, 38 interviews were undertaken. Framework analysis was applied to manage and analyse the data. Results 6 themes associated with facilitators and barriers to deprescribing were generated, respectively, with each supported by between two and three subthemes. Identified facilitators of deprescribing with patients living with frailty included shared decision-making, gradual introduction of the topic, clear communication of the topic to the patient and multidisciplinary working. Identified barriers of deprescribing included consultation constraints, patients' fear of negative consequences and inaccessible terminology and information. Conclusions This paper offers timely insight into the barriers and facilitators to deprescribing for patients living with frailty within the context of primary care in England. As deprescribing continues to grow in national and international significance, it is important that future deprescribing interventions acknowledge the current barriers and facilitators and their associated behavioural components experienced by clinicians, patients living with frailty and their informal carers to improve the safety and effectiveness of the process.
    • Development and initial validation of the Influences on Patient Safety Behaviours Questionnaire

      Taylor, N.; Parveen, Sahdia; Robins, V.; Slater, B.; Lawton, R. (2013)
      Background: Understanding the factors that make it more or less likely that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) will perform certain patient safety behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies. A questionnaire to identify determinants of HCP patient safety behaviors does not currently exist. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Influences on Patient Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (IPSBQ) based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three HCPs from three acute National Health Service Hospital Trusts in the United Kingdom completed the 34-item measure focusing on one specific patient safety behavior (using pH as the first line method for checking the position of a nasogastric tube). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to generate the model of best fit. Results: The final questionnaire consisted of 11 factors and 23 items, and CFA produced a reasonable fit: χ2 (175) = 345.7, p < 0.001; CMIN/DF = 1.98; GFI = 0.90 and RMSEA = 0.06, as well as adequate levels of discriminant validity, and internal consistency (r = 0.21 to 0.64). Conclusions: A reliable and valid theoretically underpinned measure of determinants of HCP patient safety behavior has been developed. The criterion validity of the measure is still unknown and further work is necessary to confirm the reliability and validity of this measure for other patient safety behaviors.
    • Not a level playing field: a qualitative study exploring structural, community and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst low-income multi-ethnic families

      Cronin de Chavez, A.; Islam, Shahid; McEachan, Rosemary (2019-03)
      Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0–3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups. Thematic analyses were informed by the Human Health Habitat Map and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The results show that whilst all families recognised the benefits of greenspaces, use was bounded by a variety of structural, community, and individual determinants. Individual determinants preventing use included lack of knowledge about where to go, or how to get there and confidence in managing young children whilst outdoors. Fear of crime, antisocial behaviour and accidents were the overriding barriers to use, even in high quality spaces. Social and community influences both positively encouraged use (for example, positive social interactions, and practical support by others) and prevented use (antisocial or inappropriate behaviours experienced in greenspace). The built environment was a key barrier to use. Problems related to unsuitable or unsafe playgrounds, no gardens or safe areas for children's play, poor accessibility, and lack of toilets were identified. However, the value that parents and children placed on natural blue and green features was an enabler to use. Contextual influences included external time pressures, difficulties of transporting and caring for young children and poor weather. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to tackle the uneven playing field experienced by multi-ethnic, urban, deprived communities. Initiatives to increase use should tackle structural quality issues, addressing fears about safety, whilst simultaneously encouraging communities to reclaim their local greenspaces.