• Effectiveness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection for hip osteoarthritis

      Subedi, N.; Chew, N.S.; Chandramohan, M.; Scally, Andy J.; Groves, C. (2015-11-11)
      AIM: To demonstrate the benefits of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection in the hip with varying degrees of disease severity, and to investigate the financial aspects of the procedure and impact on waiting time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken of patients who underwent fluoroscopic intra-articular steroid injection over the 9-month study period. Comparative analysis of the Oxford hip pain score pre- and 6-8 weeks post-intra-articular injection was performed. Hip radiographs of all patients were categorised as normal, mild, moderate, or severe disease (four categories) based on the modified Kellgren-Lawrence severity scale, and improvement on the Oxford hip pain score on each of these four severity categories were assessed. RESULTS: Within the study cohort of 100 patients, the mean increase in post-procedure hip score of 7.32 points confirms statistically significant benefits of the therapy (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval: 5.55-9.09). There was no significant difference in pre-injection hip score or change in score between the four severity categories (p=0.51). Significant improvement in hip score (p<0.05) was demonstrated in each of the four severity categories 6-8 weeks post-injection. No associated complications were observed. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection is a highly effective therapeutic measure for hip osteoarthritis across all grades of disease severity with significant cost savings and the potential to reduce waiting times.
    • Metamemory and prospective memory in Parkinson's disease

      Smith, Sarah J.; Souchay, C.; Moulin, C.J.A. (2011)
      OBJECTIVE: Metamemory is integral for strategizing about memory intentions. This study investigated the prospective memory (PM) deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD) from a metamemory viewpoint, with the aim of examining whether metamemory deficits might contribute to PM deficits in PD. METHOD: Sixteen patients with PD and 16 healthy older adult controls completed a time-based PM task (initiating a key press at two specified times during an ongoing task), and an event-based PM task (initiating a key press in response to animal words during an ongoing task). To measure metamemory participants were asked to predict and postdict their memory performance before and after completing the tasks, as well as complete a self-report questionnaire regarding their everyday memory function. RESULTS: The PD group had no impairment, relative to controls, on the event-based task, but had prospective (initiating the key press) and retrospective (recalling the instructions) impairments on the time-based task. The PD group also had metamemory impairments on the time-based task; they were inaccurate at predicting their performance before doing the task but, became accurate when making postdictions. This suggests impaired metamemory knowledge but preserved metamemory monitoring. There were no group differences regarding PD patients' self-reported PM performance on the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce previous findings that PM impairments in PD are dependent on task type. Several accounts of PM failures in time-based tasks are presented, in particular, ways in which mnemonic and metacognitive deficits may contribute to the difficulties observed on the time-based task.