• Development and validation of a decision tree early warning score based on routine laboratory test results for the discrimination of hospital mortality in emergency medical admissions

      Jarvis, S.W.; Kovacs, C.; Badriyah, T.; Briggs, J.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Meredith, P.; Schmidt, P.E.; Featherstone, P.I.; Prytherch, D.R.; Smith, G.B. (2013-11)
      To build an early warning score (EWS) based exclusively on routinely undertaken laboratory tests that might provide early discrimination of in-hospital death and could be easily implemented on paper. Using a database of combined haematology and biochemistry results for 86,472 discharged adult patients for whom the admission specialty was Medicine, we used decision tree (DT) analysis to generate a laboratory decision tree early warning score (LDT-EWS) for each gender. LDT-EWS was developed for a single set (n=3496) (Q1) and validated in 22 other discrete sets each of three months long (Q2, Q3...Q23) (total n=82,976; range of n=3428 to 4093) by testing its ability to discriminate in-hospital death using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. The data generated slightly different models for male and female patients. The ranges of AUROC values (95% CI) for LDT-EWS with in-hospital death as the outcome for the validation sets Q2-Q23 were: 0.755 (0.727-0.783) (Q16) to 0.801 (0.776-0.826) [all patients combined, n=82,976]; 0.744 (0.704-0.784, Q16) to 0.824 (0.792-0.856, Q2) [39,591 males]; and 0.742 (0.707-0.777, Q10) to 0.826 (0.796-0.856, Q12) [43,385 females]. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the results of commonly measured laboratory tests collected soon after hospital admission can be represented in a simple, paper-based EWS (LDT-EWS) to discriminate in-hospital mortality. We hypothesise that, with appropriate modification, it might be possible to extend the use of LDT-EWS throughout the patient's hospital stay.
    • Effectiveness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection for hip osteoarthritis

      Subedi, N.; Chew, N.S.; Chandramohan, M.; Scally, Andy J.; Groves, C. (2015-11-11)
      AIM: To demonstrate the benefits of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection in the hip with varying degrees of disease severity, and to investigate the financial aspects of the procedure and impact on waiting time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken of patients who underwent fluoroscopic intra-articular steroid injection over the 9-month study period. Comparative analysis of the Oxford hip pain score pre- and 6-8 weeks post-intra-articular injection was performed. Hip radiographs of all patients were categorised as normal, mild, moderate, or severe disease (four categories) based on the modified Kellgren-Lawrence severity scale, and improvement on the Oxford hip pain score on each of these four severity categories were assessed. RESULTS: Within the study cohort of 100 patients, the mean increase in post-procedure hip score of 7.32 points confirms statistically significant benefits of the therapy (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval: 5.55-9.09). There was no significant difference in pre-injection hip score or change in score between the four severity categories (p=0.51). Significant improvement in hip score (p<0.05) was demonstrated in each of the four severity categories 6-8 weeks post-injection. No associated complications were observed. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular steroid injection is a highly effective therapeutic measure for hip osteoarthritis across all grades of disease severity with significant cost savings and the potential to reduce waiting times.
    • Ethnicity and differences between clinic and ambulatory blood pressure measurements

      Martin, U.; Haque, M.S.; Wood, S.; Greenfield, S.M.; Gill, P.S.; Mant, J.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Heer, G.; Johal, A.; Kaur, R.; et al. (2015)
      This study investigated the relationship of ethnicity to the differences between blood pressure (BP) measured in a clinic setting and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in individuals with a previous diagnosis of hypertension (HT) and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension (NHT). A cross-sectional comparison of BP measurement was performed in 770 participants (white British (WB, 39%), South Asian (SA, 31%), and African Caribbean (AC, 30%)) in 28 primary care clinics in West Midlands, United Kingdom. Mean differences between daytime ABPM, standardized clinic (mean of 3 occasions), casual clinic (first reading on first occasion), and last routine BP taken at the general practitioner practice were compared in HT and NHT individuals. Daytime systolic and diastolic ABPM readings were similar to standardized clinic BP (systolic: 128 (SE 0.9) vs. 125 (SE 0.9) mm Hg (NHT) and 132 (SE 0.7) vs. 131 (SE 0.7) mm Hg (HT)) and were not associated with ethnicity to a clinically important extent. When BP was taken less carefully, differences emerged: casual clinic readings were higher than ABPM, particularly in the HT group where the systolic differences approached clinical relevance (131 (SE 1.2) vs. 129 (SE 1.0) mm Hg (NHT) and 139 (SE 0.9) vs. 133 (SE 0.7) mm Hg (HT)) and were larger in SA and AC hypertensive individuals (136 (SE 1.5) vs. 133 (SE 1.2) mm Hg (WB), 141 (SE 1.7) vs. 133 (SE 1.4) mm Hg (SA), and 142 (SE 1.6) vs. 134 (SE 1.3) mm Hg (AC); mean differences: 3 (0-7), P = 0.03 and 4 (1-7), P = 0.01, respectively). Differences were also observed for the last practice reading in SA and ACs. BP differences between ethnic groups where BP is carefully measured on multiple occasions are small and unlikely to alter clinical management. When BP is measured casually on a single occasion or in routine care, differences appear that could approach clinical relevance.
    • Excellent cross-cultural validity, intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index in patients after stroke undergoing rehabilitation

      Roorda, L.D.; Green, J.R.; De Kluis, K.R.; Molenaar, I.W.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Smith, J.; Geurts, A.C. (2008)
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-cultural validity of international Dutch-English comparisons when using the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch RMI. METHODS: Cross-cultural validity was studied in a combined data-set of Dutch and English patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke, who were assessed with the Dutch version of the RMI and the original English RMI, respectively. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate unidimensionality, monotone homogeneity model fit, and differential item functioning between the Dutch and the English RMI. Intra-test reliability and construct validity were studied in the Dutch patients by calculating the reliability coefficient and correlating the Dutch RMI and the Dutch Barthel Index. RESULTS: The RMI was completed for Dutch (n = 200) and English (n = 420) patients after stroke. The unidimensionality and monotone homogeneity model fit of the RMI were excellent: combined Dutch-English data-set (coefficient H = 0.91); Dutch data-set (coefficient H = 0.93); English data-set (coefficient H = 0.89). No differential item functioning was found between the Dutch and the English RMI. The intra-test reliability of the Dutch RMI was excellent (coefficient rho = 0.97). In a sub-sample of patients (n = 91), the Dutch RMI correlated strongly with the Dutch Barthel Index (Spearman's correlation coefficient rho = 0.84). CONCLUSION: The Dutch RMI allows valid international Dutch-English comparisons, and has excellent intra-test reliability and construct validity.
    • Older people's care experience in community and general hospitals: a comparative study

      Green, J.R.; Forster, A.; Young, J.; Small, Neil A.; Spink, Joanna (2008)
      Community hospitals are an important component of the post-acute care pathway for older people. The objective of this study was to describe and contrast patients' and carers' experiences of community and general hospitals. Interviews with patients and carers revealed similarities in the perceptions of care between the two settings. These included appreciation of staff sensitivity, a sense of security, encouragement of independence and lack of activity. The community hospital was appreciated for its location, atmosphere, accommodation, greater sense of freedom, quality of food and staff attitudes. UK health policy promotes the development of community hospitals. This should be progressed in a way that retains key strengths of the specific service they offer.
    • The Birmingham Relationship Continuity Measure: the development and evaluation of a measure of the perceived continuity of spousal relationships in dementia

      Riley, G.A.; Fisher, G.; Hagger, B.F.; Elliott, A.; Le Serve, H.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2013)
      BACKGROUND: Qualitative research has suggested that spousal carers of someone with dementia differ in terms of whether they perceive their relationship with that person as continuous with the premorbid relationship or as radically different, and that a perception of continuity may be associated with more person-centered care and the experience of fewer of the negative emotions associated with caring. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a quantitative measure of the extent to which spousal carers perceive the relationship to be continuous. METHODS: An initial pool of 42 questionnaire items was generated on the basis of the qualitative research about relationship continuity. These were completed by 51 spousal carers and item analysis was used to reduce the pool to 23 items. The retained items, comprising five subscales, were then administered to a second sample of 84 spousal carers, and the questionnaire's reliability, discriminative power, and validity were evaluated. RESULTS: The questionnaire showed good reliability: Cronbach's alpha for the full scale was 0.947, and test-retest reliability was 0.932. Ferguson's delta was 0.987, indicating good discriminative power. Evidence of construct validity was provided by predicted patterns of subscale correlations with the Closeness and Conflict Scale and the Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory. CONCLUSION: Initial psychometric evaluation of the measure was encouraging. The measure provides a quantitative means of investigating ideas from qualitative research about the role of relationship continuity in influencing how spousal carers provide care and how they react emotionally to their caring role.
    • The feasibility of Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) on a neurorehabilitation ward

      McIntosh, C.J.; Westbrook, J.L.; Sheldrick, R.; Surr, Claire A.; Hare, D.J. (2012)
      Person-centred care (PCC) is recommended when working with patients with neurological difficulties. Despite this, to date there has been no appropriate methodology for assessing or developing PCC in neurorehabilitation settings. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is a well-established tool for assessing and developing PCC in dementia settings and the current study investigated the feasibility of applying DCM on an acute neurorehabilitation ward. DCM procedure and coding required minor adaptations for use in this setting and further recommended adaptations were subsequently identified. It was found that the DCM coding system was generally suitable and could identify strengths, weaknesses and areas for development in ward care. Q-methodology identified that staff views endorsed the feasibility of using DCM in neurorehabilitation, with staff reporting that they found DCM useful and relevant to their work. DCM could be further developed for this setting by amendments to the behaviour coding system, concept and coding of person-centred care, and a population-specific manual. DCM is a promising methodology to develop and promote PCC in neurorehabilitation.
    • Use of single-vision distance spectacles improves landing control during step descent in well-adapted multifocal lens-wearers

      Timmis, Matthew A.; Johnson, Louise; Elliott, David B.; Buckley, John G. (2010)
      PURPOSE: Epidemiologic research has shown that multifocal spectacle wearers (bifocal and progressive addition lenses [PALs]) are more than twice as likely to fall than are nonmultifocal spectacle wearers, with this risk further increasing when negotiating stairs. The present study investigated whether step and stair descent safety is improved by using single-vision distance lenses. METHODS: From a stationary standing position on top of a block, 20 long-term multifocal wearers stepped down (from different block heights) onto a lower level wearing bifocal, progressive addition, or single-vision distance lenses. RESULTS: Use of single-vision distance spectacles led to an increased single-limb support time, a reduced ankle and knee angle and vertical center-of-mass velocity at contact with the lower level, and a reduced ankle angular velocity and vertical center-of-mass velocity during initial landing (P < 0.03). These findings indicate that landing occurred in a more controlled manner when the subjects wore single-vision distance spectacles, rather than tending to "drop" onto the lower level as occurred when wearing bifocals or PALs. CONCLUSIONS: Use of single-vision distance spectacles led to improvements in landing control, consistent with individuals' being more certain regarding the precise height of the lower floor level. This enhanced control was attributed to having a view of the foot, step edge, and immediate floor area that was not blurred, magnified, or doubled and that did not suffer from image jump or peripheral distortions. These findings provide further evidence that use of single-vision distance lenses in everyday locomotion may be advantageous for elderly multifocal wearers who have a high risk of falling.