• Risk factors for congenital anomaly in a multiethnic birth cohort: an analysis of the Born in Bradford study

      Sheridan, E.; Wright, J.; Small, Neil A.; Corry, P.C.; Oddie, S.J.; Whibley, C.; Petherick, E.S.; Malik, T.; Pawson, Nicole; McKinney, P.A.; et al. (2013)
      Background: Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant death and disability and their incidence varies between ethnic groups in the UK. Rates of infant death are highest in children of Pakistani origin, and congenital anomalies are the most common cause of death in children younger than 12 in this ethnic group. We investigated the incidence of congenital anomalies in a large multiethnic birth cohort to identify the causes of the excess of congenital anomalies in this community. Methods: We obtained questionnaire data from the mothers of children with one or more anomalies from the Born in Bradford study, a prospective birth cohort study of 13 776 babies and their families in which recruitment was undertaken between 2007 and 2011. Details of anomalies were prospectively reported to the study and we cross checked these details against medical records. We linked data for anomalies to maternal questionnaire and clinical data gathered as part of the Born in Bradford study. We calculated univariate and multivariate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs for various maternal risk factors. Findings: Of 11 396 babies for whom questionnaire data were available, 386 (3%) had a congenital anomaly. Rates for congenital anomaly were 305·74 per 10 000 livebirths, compared with a national rate of 165·90 per 10 000. The risk was greater for mothers of Pakistani origin than for those of white British origin (univariate RR 1·96, 95% CI 1·56–2·46). Overall, 2013 (18%) babies were the offspring of first-cousin unions. These babies were mainly of Pakistani origin—1922 (37%) of 5127 babies of Pakistani origin had parents in first-cousin unions. Consanguinity was associated with a doubling of risk for congenital anomaly (multivariate RR 2·19, 95% CI 1·67–2·85); we noted no association with increasing deprivation. 31% of all anomalies in children of Pakistani origin could be attributed to consanguinity. We noted a similar increase in risk for mothers of white British origin older than 34 years (multivariate RR 1·83, 95% CI 1·14–3·00). Maternal education to degree level was protective (0·53, 95% CI 0·38–0·75), irrespective of ethnic origin. Interpretation: Consanguinity is a major risk factor for congenital anomaly. The risk remains even after adjustment for deprivation, and accounts for almost a third of anomalies in babies of Pakistani origin. High levels of educational attainment are associated with reduced risk in all ethnic groups. Our findings will be valuable in health promotion and public health, and to those commissioning antenatal, paediatric, and clinical genetic services. Sensitive advice about the risks should be provided to communities at increased risk, and to couples in consanguineous unions, to assist in reproductive decision making. Funding: National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care programme.
    • Severe neonatal hypernatraemia: a population based study

      Oddie, S.J.; Craven, V.; Deakin, K.; Westman, J.; Scally, Andy J. (2013)
      AIMS: To describe incidence, presentation, treatment and short term outcomes of severe neonatal hypernatraemia (SNH, sodium >/=160 mmol/l). METHODS: Prospective, population based surveillance study over 13 months using the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Cases were >33 weeks gestation at birth, fed breast or formula milk and <28 days of age at presentation. RESULTS: Of 62 cases of SNH reported (7, 95% CI 5.4 to 9.0 per 1 00 000 live births), 61 mothers had intended to achieve exclusive breast feeding. Infants presented at median day 6 (range 2-17) with median weight loss of 19.5% (range 8.9-30.9). 12 had jaundice and 57 weight loss as a presenting feature. 58 presented with weight loss >/=15%. 25 babies had not stooled in the 24 h prior to admission. Serum sodium fell by median 12.9 mmol/l per 24 h (range 0-30). No baby died, had seizures or coma or was treated with dialysis or a central line. At discharge, babies had regained 11% of initial birth weight after a median admission of 5 (range 2-14) days. 10 were exclusively breast fed on discharge from hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hypernatraemia at this level, in this population, is strongly associated with weight loss. It occurs almost exclusively after attempts to initiate breast feeding, occurs uncommonly and does not appear to be associated with serious short term morbidities, beyond admission to hospital.
    • Use of self-inflating bags for neonatal resuscitation.

      Oddie, S.J.; Wylie, J.; Scally, Andy J. (2005)
      Background: Lung inflation is the most important, and most difficult step in newborn resuscitation. A wide variety of devices are used to achieve lung inflation, but there are relatively few data to guide clinicians in their choice of device. Methods: We tested the ability of instructors and trained candidates on a newborn life support course to deliver initial inflation breaths to a test lung, using a pressure limited blow-off valve, a 240-ml self-inflating bag and a 500-ml self-inflating bag in sequence. Results: Use of a 240-ml self-inflating bag was associated with shorter initial inflations of 1.8 s mean (95% CI 1.60¿1.99 s), compared with 2.42 s (2.24¿2.61 s), 2.40 s (2.08¿2.71 s) for 500-ml self-inflating bags and ¿Tom Thumb¿ T piece, respectively. Delivery of breaths within a target pressure range of 30 ± 5 cm H2O was significantly better using a T piece than either self-inflating bag (proportion within target range 0.05 (95% CI 0¿0.11), 0.17 (95% CI 0.12¿0.23), 0.89 (95% CI 0.83¿0.94) for 240-ml and 500-ml self-inflating bags and ¿Tom Thumb¿ T piece, respectively. Excessive pressure delivery with both sizes of self-inflating bag was frequent. Conclusions: These data do not support use of 240-ml or 500-ml self-inflating bags for resuscitation of newborn term infants. A variable pressure T piece blow-off system may be the easiest device to use for newborn resuscitation and the most reliable at delivering desired pressures for set times.