• Immunohistochemical analysis of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase in human superficial bladder tumours: Relationship between tumour enzymology and clinical outcome following intravesical mitomycin C therapy

      Basu, Saurajyoti; Brown, John E.; Flannigan, G. Michael; Gill, Jason H.; Loadman, Paul M.; Naylor, Brian; Scally, Andy J.; Seargent, Jill M.; Shah, Tariq K.; Puri, Rajiv; et al. (2004)
      A central theme within the concept of enzyme-directed bioreductive drug development is the potential to predict tumour response based on the profiling of enzymes involved in the bioreductive activation process. Mitomycin C (MMC) is the prototypical bioreductive drug that is reduced to active intermediates by several reductases including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R). The purpose of our study was to determine whether NQO1 and P450R protein expression in a panel of low-grade, human superficial bladder tumours correlates with clinical response to MMC. A retrospective clinical study was conducted in which the response to MMC of 92 bladder cancer patients was compared to the immunohistochemical expression of NQO1 and P450R protein in archived paraffin-embedded bladder tumour specimens. A broad spectrum of NQO1 protein levels exists in bladder tumours between individual patients, ranging from intense to no immunohistochemical staining. In contrast, levels of P450R were similar with most tumours having moderate to high levels. All patients were chemotherapy naïve prior to receiving MMC and clinical response was defined as the time to first recurrence. A poor correlation exists between clinical response and NQO1, P450R or the expression patterns of various combinations of the 2 proteins. The results of our study demonstrate that the clinical response of superficial bladder cancers to MMC cannot be predicted on the basis of NQO1 and/or P450R protein expression and suggest that other factors (other reductases or post DNA damage events) have a significant bearing on tumour response.
    • NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase-1 C609T polymorphism analysis in human superficial bladder cancers: relationship of genotype status to NQO1 phenotype and clinical response to Mitomycin C.

      Basu, Saurajyoti; Brown, John E.; Flannigan, G. Michael; Gill, Jason H.; Loadman, Paul M.; Martin, Sandie W.; Naylor, Brian; Puri, Rajiv; Scally, Andy J.; Seargent, Jill M.; et al. (2004)
      NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) has been implicated in the bioreductive activation of the clinically active anticancer drug Mitomycin C (MMC) and a polymorphic variant of NQO1 which lacks functional enzyme activity (NQO1*2) has been linked with poor survival in patients treated with MMC. The relationship between NQO1 activity and cellular response to MMC is however controversial and the aim of this study was to determine whether the response of bladder cancer patients to MMC can be forecast on the basis of NQO1*2 genotype status. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 148 patients with low to intermediate grade (G1/G2) superficial (Ta/T1) bladder cancers and NQO1*2 genotype status determined by PCR-RFLP. NQO1*2 genotype status was retrospectively compared with clinical response to intravesical administered MMC with the primary end-point being time to first recurrence. NQO1 phenotype was determined by immunohistochemistry. Of the 148 patients genotyped, 85 (57.4%) were NQO1*1 (wild-type), 59 (39.8%) were NQO1*1/*2 (heterozygotes) and 4 (2.7%) were NQO1*2/*2. No NQO1 protein expression was detected in NQO1*2/*2 tumours. A broad spectrum of NQO1 protein expression existed in tumours genotyped as NQO1*1 and NQO1*1/*2 although tumours with NQO1*1 typically expressed higher NQO1 protein. A poor correlation existed between NQO1*2 genotype status and clinical response to MMC. The results of this retrospective study suggest that tailoring MMC therapy to individual patients with superficial bladder cancer on the basis of NQO1 genotype status is unlikely to be of clinical benefit.