• Influence of ethnicity on acceptability of method of blood pressure monitoring: a cross-sectional study in primary care.

      Wood, S.; Greenfield, S.M.; Haque, M.S.; Martin, U.; Gill, P.S.; Mant, J.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Heer, G.; Johal, A.; Kaur, R.; et al. (2016)
      Background: Ambulatory and/or home monitoring are recommended in the UK and North America for the diagnosis of hypertension but little is known about acceptability. Aim: To determine the acceptability of different methods of measuring blood pressure to people from different ethnic minority groups. Design and setting : Cross sectional study with focus groups in primary care. Methods: People with and without hypertension of different ethnicities were assessed for acceptability of clinic, home and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using completion rate, questionnaire and focus groups. Results: 770 participants were included comprising white British (n=300), South Asian (n=241) and African Caribbean (n=229). White British participants had significantly higher successful completion rates across all monitoring modalities compared to the other ethnic groups, especially for ambulatory monitoring: white British (277 completed, 92%[89-95%]) vs South Asian (171, 71%[65-76%], p<0.001 and African Caribbean (188, 82%[77-87%], p<0.001) respectively. There were significantly lower acceptability scores for minority ethnic participants across all monitoring methods compared to white British. Focus group results highlighted self-monitoring as most acceptable and ambulatory monitoring least without consistent differences by ethnicity. Clinic monitoring was seen as inconvenient and anxiety provoking but with the advantage of immediate professional input. Conclusions: Reduced acceptability and completion rates amongst minority ethnic groups raise important questions for the implementation and interpretation of blood pressure monitoring in general and ambulatory monitoring in particular. Selection of method for blood pressure monitoring should take into account clinical need and patient preference as well as consideration of potential cultural barriers to monitoring.