• A reference database for the Stratec XCT-2000 peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scanner in healthy children and young adults aged 6–19 years

      Ashby, R.L.; Ward, K.A.; Roberts, S.A.; Edwards, Lisa; Mughal, M.Z.; Adams, Jenny E. (2009-08)
      Summary We have produced paediatric reference data for forearm sites using the Stratec XCT-2000 peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner. These data are intended for clinical and research use and will assist in the interpretation of bone mineral density and bone geometric parameters at the distal and mid-shaft radius in children and young adults aged between 6–19 years. Introduction Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) provides measurements of bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone geometry. There is a lack of reference data available for the interpretation of pQCT measurements in children and young adults. The aim of this study was to provide reference data at the distal and midshaft radius. Methods pQCT was used to measure the 4% and 50% sites of the non-dominant radius in a cohort of healthy white Caucasian children and young adults aged between 5 and 25 years. The lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) technique was used to produce gender-specific reference centile curves and LMS tables for calculating individual standard deviations scores. Results The study population consisted of 629 participants (380 males). Reference centile curves were produced; total and trabecular BMD for age (distal radius) and for age and height, bone area (distal and mid-shaft radius), cortical area, cortical thickness, BMC, axial moment of inertia, stress– strain index and muscle area (mid-shaft radius). Conclusions We present gender-specific databases for the assessment of the distal and mid-shaft radius by pQCT. These data can be used as control data for research studies and allow the clinical interpretation of pQCT measurements in children and young adults by age and height.
    • Sun exposure behaviour, seasonal vitamin D deficiency, and relationship to bone health in adolescents

      Farrar, M.D.; Mughal, M.Z.; Adams, Jenny E.; Wilkinson, J.; Berry, J.L.; Edwards, Lisa; Kift, R.; Marjanovic, E.; Vail, A.; Webb, A.R.; et al. (2016-08-01)
      Context: Vitamin D is essential for bone health in adolescence, where there is rapid bone mineral content accrual. As cutaneous sun-exposure provides vitamin D, there is no recommended oral intake for UK adolescents. Objective: Assess seasonal vitamin D status and its contributors in white Caucasian adolescents, and examine bone health in those found deficient. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Six schools in Greater Manchester, UK. Participants: 131 adolescents, 12–15 years. Intervention(s): Seasonal assessment of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), personal sunexposure and dietary vitamin D. Adolescents deficient (25OHD <10 ng/mL/25 nmol/L) in ≥one season underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (lumbar spine, femoral neck), with bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) correction for size, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (distal radius) for volumetric (v)BMD. Main Outcome Measure: Serum 25OHD; BMD. Results: Mean 25OHD was highest in September: 24.1 (SD 6.9) ng/mL and lowest in January: 15.5 (5.9) ng/mL. Over the year, 16% were deficient in ≥one season and 79% insufficient (25OHD <20 ng/mL/50 nmol/L) including 28% in September. Dietary vitamin D was low year-round while personal sun-exposure was seasonal and predominantly across the school week. Holidays accounted for 17% variation in peak 25OHD (p<0.001). Nineteen adolescents underwent bone assessment, which showed low femoral neck BMAD versus matched reference data (p=0.0002), 3 with Z≤ -2.0 distal radius trabecular vBMD. Conclusions: Sun-exposure levels failed to provide adequate vitamin D, ~one-quarter adolescents insufficient even at summer-peak. Seasonal vitamin D deficiency was prevalent and those affected had low BMD. Recommendations on vitamin D acquisition are indicated in this age-group.