• Adherence of patients to long-term medication: a cross-sectional study of antihypertensive regimens in Austria

      Lotsch, F.; Auer-Hackenberg, L.; Groger, M.; Rehman, K.; Morrison, V.; Holmes, E.; Parveen, Sahdia; Plumpton, C.; Clyne, W.; de Geest, S.; et al. (2015-05)
      Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate adherence and causes for non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Austrian patients. A special focus was placed on social parameters and behavioural theories. Methods Patients were invited via advertisements in community pharmacies in Austria to complete an online survey. Inclusion criteria were an age of 18 years or older, a diagnosis of arterial hypertension and a current prescription of antihypertensive medication. Adherence was measured by the four-item Morisky scale. Non-adherence was defined by at least one point in the Morisky scale. Several demographic, social and behavioural parameters were analysed as potential co-variables associated with adherence. Results A total of 323 patients completed the online survey, of which 109 (33.7 %) met the criteria for nonadherence. In a multivariable model, self-efficacy and age were associated with adherence, whereas intention and barriers were linked to non-adherence; 56 patients (17.3 %) were classified as intentionally non-adherent. Conclusion This study demonstrates that non-adherence affects an important proportion of patients in the treatment of arterial hypertension. Young age was a particularly important risk factor for non-adherence, and this patient population is, therefore, in need of special attention. Modifiable risk factors were identified that could help improving the treatment of arterial hypertension and potentially other chronic conditions.
    • Does coping mediate the relationship between familism and caregiver outcomes?

      Parveen, Sahdia; Morrison, V.; Robinson, C.A. (2014-03)
      Objectives: The sociocultural model of stress and coping, which despite receiving support from several studies conducted with diverse ethnic groups, has yet to be tested longitudinally or used within the context of positive caregiver outcomes. The aim of the current study was to test a specific component of the model, which posits that caregiver coping will be influenced by the cultural value of familism (feelings of solidarity and loyalty among family members), which will in turn affect caregiver outcomes. Method: A questionnaire was completed by 123 family caregivers in the UK assessing familism, use of coping strategies, caregiver gains, anxiety and depression at three time points over nine months. Results: Mediation analysis followed guidelines proposed by Baron and Kenny. Religious coping and positive reframing at time 2 (T2) were found to significantly mediate between familism values at time 1 (T1) and caregiver gains at time 3 (T3). Behavioural disengagement at T2 was found to mediate between familism at T1 and caregiver depression atT3. Additionally familism was found to be positively associated with both negative and positive aspects of caregiving. Conclusion: Our longitudinal findings suggest that interventions and services acknowledging caregiver values and the associated coping responses may prove beneficial.
    • Involving minority ethnic communities and diverse experts by experience in dementia research: the Caregiving HOPE study

      Parveen, Sahdia; Barker, S.; Kaur, R.; Kerry, F.; Mitchell, W.; Happs, A.; Fry, Gary; Morrison, V.; Fortinsky, R.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-11)
      Patient and public involvement is imperative to ensure relevance of research. There is a growing literature on the theoretical underpinning on patient and public involvement including level and processes of involvement. The aim of this paper is to describe a person-centred and culturally sensitive approach to working with minority ethnic communities, involving carers, people living with dementia, members of the public and carer support workers, as used in the Caregiving HOPE study; and the influence of the approach on the study’s research processes and outcomes. Patient and public involvement members were considered experts by experience and involved with study conception, design, conduct and dissemination. The perspective of the experts by experience is also presented in this article. The level and nature of involvement was influenced by each individual’s needs and desires which changed over the course of the study. The approach had a significant impact on study outcomes as evidenced by successful recruitment and engagement at a national level, but was not without challenges with greater flexibility required and fuller consideration of financial and time costs required. Benefits of the approach included strong engagement, improved outcomes (successful recruitment of seldom heard groups) and meaningful relationships between researchers and experts by experience. A person-centred and culturally sensitive approach is required with patient and public involvement to ensure involvement is not detrimental to those involved, is meaningful and enjoyable and has a positive impact on the research.