• Beliefs About Dementia: Development and Validation of the Representations and Adjustment to Dementia Index (RADIX)

      Quinn, Catherine; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2018-06)
      The Self-Regulation Model (SRM) identifies that the beliefs people hold about an illness can influence their responses to that illness. Although there are generic measures of illness representations, there is a need for a brief tailored measure to use with people with dementia. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a brief measure called the Representations and Adjustment to Dementia Index (RADIX). The RADIX contains questions on the SRM elements: Identity, Cause, Timeline, Control, and Consequences. The RADIX validation was conducted with a sample of 385 community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia who were taking part in the IDEAL cohort study. Test-retest reliability was conducted over a 4-week period with a separate sample of 20 people with dementia. The validation process resulted in a reduction in the number of items in the Timeline, Control, and Consequences items. The resulting RADIX demonstrated good acceptability, internal reliability, and test-retest reliability. All the RADIX items had low missing data, indicating good acceptability. The factor analysis confirmed that the Consequences items formed two subscales (practical and emotional consequences) that had Cronbach's α of 8 and 0.91 respectively. Test-retest reliability indicated that the Identity, Timeline, and Control items had moderate reliability and the practical and emotional consequences scales had good reliability. The RADIX demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties, proves to be a useful measure for exploring people's beliefs about dementia, and could aid the provision of tailored information and support to people with dementia.
    • Caregiver influences on 'living well' for people with dementia: Findings from the IDEAL study.

      Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Morris, R.G.; Victor, C.; Clare, L. (2019-05)
      Objectives: The capability to ‘live well’ in people with dementia can be influenced by many factors, including those related to the experiences of their informal caregiver. How caregivers experience their own role can affect not only their well-being but also the way they provide care and hence the experience of the person with dementia. The aim of this study is to identify the potential impact of the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience on how people with mild to moderate dementia self-rate their QoL, well-being and satisfaction with life. Method: This study utilised time-point 1 data from 1283 informal caregiver and the 1283 people with dementia whom they provide care from the IDEAL cohort study. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the associations between measures related to the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience (caregiving stress, perceived social restrictions, caregiving competence, positive aspects of caregiving, and coping) and the self-ratings of QoL, satisfaction with life, and well-being by the person with dementia. Results: Lower QoL ratings by the person with dementia were associated with high caregiver stress (−1.98; 95% CI: −2.89, −1.07), high perceived social restrictions (−2.04; 95% CI: −2.94, −1.14) and low caregiving competence (−2.01; 95% CI: −2.95, −1.06). Similar associations were found for satisfaction with life and wellbeing. Positive aspects of caregiving and coping were not associated with outcomes for the person with dementia. Conclusion: The findings indicate that how the caregiver experiences caregiving can affect the person with dementia. This finding reinforces the importance of providing support to caregivers.
    • Caregivers' beliefs about dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

      Quinn, Catherine; Jones, I.R.; Martyr, A.; Nelis, S.M.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L.; IDEAL Study Team (2019)
      Objective: Informal caregivers of people with dementia develop their own beliefs about the condition, referred to as Dementia Representations (DRs), as they try to make sense of the changes they are observing. The first aim of this study was to provide a profile of the types of DRs held by caregivers. The second aim was to examine the impact of caregivers’ DRs on their well-being, satisfaction with life (SwL) and caregiving stress. Methods: Participants were 1264 informal caregivers of people in the mild-to-moderate stages of dementia from time-point 1 of the IDEAL cohort study. Measures: DRs were measured using questionnaire items covering: Identity, Cause, Control, and Timeline. Results: Almost half (49.2%) of caregivers used a diagnostic term to describe the person’s condition, although 93.4% of caregivers stated they were aware of the diagnosis. Higher well-being, SwL, and lower caregiving stress were associated with the use of an identity term relating to specific symptoms of dementia, attributing the cause to ageing or not knowing the cause, and believing the condition would stay the same. Lower well-being, SwL, and higher caregiving stress were associated with believing there was little that could be done to control the effects of the condition. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals should assess and gain an understanding of caregivers’ DRs in order to provide more tailored information and support.
    • A Comprehensive Model of Factors Associated with Capability to "live Well" for Family Caregivers of People Living with Mild-to-Moderate Dementia: Findings from the IDEAL Study

      Clare, L.; Wu, Y.-T.; Quinn, Catherine; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019)
      Understanding key influences on outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia is hampered by inconsistent conceptualization and measurement of outcomes and limited evidence about the relative impact of different variables. We aimed to address these issues. We analyzed data from 1283 caregivers of community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study. We generated a “living well” latent factor from measures of quality of life, satisfaction with life, and well-being. We used structural equation modelling to derive latent variables for 7 domains reflecting caregivers’ perceptions of their personal resources and experiences, and to examine the associations with caregivers’ perceptions of their capability to “live well.” The domain of psychological characteristics and psychological health was most strongly related to living well [2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.08-2.97], followed by physical fitness and physical health (1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-1.91) and experiencing caregiving (1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.70). Social capitals, assets and resources (0.68; 95% CI, 0.35-1.00) and relationship with the person with dementia (−0.22; 95% CI, −0.41 to −0.03) had smaller, significant associations. Social location (0.28; 95% CI, −0.33 to 0.89) and managing everyday life with dementia (0.06; 95% CI, −0.15 to 0.28) were not significantly associated with living well. These findings demonstrate the importance of supporting caregivers’ psychological and physical health and their ability to develop and maintain positive coping strategies, as well as enabling them to maintain vital social capitals, assets and resources.
    • A comprehensive model of factors associated with subjective perceptions of "living well" with dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

      Clare, L.; Wu, Y-T.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Quinn, Catherine; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019-01)
      Introduction: We aimed to better understand what predicts the capability to “live well” with dementia by identifying the relative contribution of life domains associated with the subjective experience of living well. Methods: We analyzed data from 1547 individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia in the IDEAL cohort. We generated a “living well” latent factor from measures of quality of life, satisfaction with life, and well-being. We used multivariate modeling to identify variables related to living well measures and structural equation modeling to derive latent variables for 5 life domains and to examine the associations of these domains with living well. Results: All 5 domains were individually associated with living well. When modeled together, the psychological characteristics and psychological health domain was the only independent predictor of living well [effect size, 3.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.93-4.17], and effect sizes were smaller for physical fitness and physical health (1.23, 95% CI: −0.10 to 2.58), social capitals, assets and resources (0.67; 95% CI: −0.04 to 1.38), managing everyday life with dementia (0.33; 95% CI: −0.06 to 0.71), and social location (0.08; 95% CI: −2.10 to 2.26). Discussion: Psychological resources, and the social, environmental, and physical factors that underpin positive psychological states, are potentially important targets for interventions and initiatives that aim to improve the experience of living with dementia.
    • Does awareness of condition help people with mild-to-moderate dementia to live well?

      Alexander, C.M.; Martyr, A.; Gamble, L.D.; Savage, S.A.; Quinn, Catherine; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2021-09-25)
      People living with dementia vary in awareness of their abilities. We explored awareness of the condition and diagnosis in people with mild-to-moderate dementia, and how this relates to quality of life, well-being, life satisfaction, and caregiver stress. This study was a cross-sectional exploratory analysis of data from the IDEAL cohort, which recruited people with dementia living at home and available caregivers from 29 research sites in Great Britain. Our study included 917 people with mild-to-moderate dementia and 755 carers. Low and high awareness groups were derived from self-reported responses to a dementia representation measure. Logistic regression was used to explore predictors of awareness of condition and diagnosis using demographic, cognitive, functional and psychological measures, and the relationship with quality of life, well-being and life satisfaction (‘living well’), and caregiver stress. There were 83 people with low awareness of their condition. The remaining 834 people showed some awareness and 103 of these had high awareness of their condition and diagnosis. Psychosocial factors were stronger predictors of awareness than cognitive and functional ability. Those with higher awareness reported lower mood, and lower scores on indices of living well as well as lower optimism, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Low awareness was more likely in those aged 80y and above, and living in more socially deprived areas. No relationship was seen between caregiver stress and awareness. Awareness of the condition and diagnosis varies in people with mild-to-moderate dementia and is relevant to the capability to live well. Awareness should be considered in person-centered clinical care.
    • Factors associated with self- and informant ratings of quality of life, well-being and life satisfaction in people with mild-to-moderate dementia: results from the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life programme

      Wu, Y-T.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, A.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Knapp, M.; Henderson, C.; Hindle, J.V.; Jones, R.W.; et al. (2020-05)
      Background: a large number of studies have explored factors related to self- and informant ratings of quality of life in people with dementia, but many studies have had relatively small sample sizes and mainly focused on health conditions and dementia symptoms. The aim of this study is to compare self- and informant-rated quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being, and investigate the relationships of the two different rating methods with various social, psychological and health factors, using a large cohort study of community-dwelling people with dementia and carers in Great Britain. Methods: this study included 1,283 dyads of people with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary carers in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life study. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate associations of self- and informant-rated quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being with factors in five domains: psychological characteristics and health; social location; capitals, assets and resources; physical fitness and health; and managing everyday life with dementia. Results: people with dementia rated their quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being more highly than did the informants. Despite these differences, the two approaches had similar relationships with social, psychological and physical health factors in the five domains. Conclusion: although self- and informant ratings differ, they display similar results when focusing on factors associated with quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being. Either self- or informant ratings may offer a reasonable source of information about people with dementia in terms of understanding associated factors.
    • Living well with dementia: a systematic review and correlational meta-analysis of factors associated with quality of life, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia

      Martyr, A.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Wu, Y.-T.; Lamont, R.A.; Henderson, C.; Clarke, R.; Hindle, J.V.; Thom, J.M.; Jones, I.R.; et al. (2018-10)
      Current policy emphasises the importance of 'living well' with dementia, but there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the factors related to quality of life (QoL), subjective well-being or life satisfaction in people with dementia. We examined the available evidence in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic databases until 7 January 2016 for observational studies investigating factors associated with QoL, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Articles had to provide quantitative data and include ⩾75% people with dementia of any type or severity. We included 198 QoL studies taken from 272 articles in the meta-analysis. The analysis focused on 43 factors with sufficient data, relating to 37639 people with dementia. Generally, these factors were significantly associated with QoL, but effect sizes were often small (0.1-0.29) or negligible (<0.09). Factors reflecting relationships, social engagement and functional ability were associated with better QoL. Factors indicative of poorer physical and mental health (including depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms) and poorer carer well-being were associated with poorer QoL. Longitudinal evidence about predictors of QoL was limited. There was a considerable between-study heterogeneity. The pattern of numerous predominantly small associations with QoL suggests a need to reconsider approaches to understanding and assessing living well with dementia.
    • Living well with dementia: what is possible and how to promote it

      Quinn, Catherine; Pickett, James A.; Litherland, R.; Morris, R.G.; Martyr, A.; Clare, L. (2021)
      Key points: The focus on living well with dementia encourages a more positive and empowering approach. The right support can improve the experience of living with dementia. An holistic approach to assessing the needs of people with dementia and identifying the factors that impact on their well-being is essential. Enabling people to live better requires a broad approach that encompasses both health and social systems and the wider community.
    • Protocol for the IDEAL-2 longitudinal study: following the experiences of people with dementia and their primary carers to understand what contributes to living well with dementia and enhances active life

      Silarova, B.; Nelis, S.M.; Ashworth, R.M.; Ballard, C.; Bienkiewicz, M.; Henderson, C.; Hillman, A.; Hindle, J.V.; Hughes, J.C.; Lamont, R.A.; et al. (2018-10)
      There is a major need for longitudinal research examining the experiences of people with dementia and their primary carers, as relatively little is known about how the factors associated with capability to ‘live well’ vary over time. The main aim of the IDEAL-2 study is to investigate how and why, over time, people with dementia and their primary carers might vary in their capability to live well with dementia, whilst exploring both their use of health and care services and their unmet needs. IDEAL-2 will build on the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort of 1547 people (who, at recruitment between July 2014 and July 2016, had mild-to-moderate dementia), and their 1283 primary carers in Great Britain. The existing cohort will be enriched with additional participants with mild-to-moderate dementia (and their primary carers where available and willing) from the following groups: people with rarer forms of dementia, and/or those who are ≥90 years or < 65 years of age at time of recruitment. We will assess the primary outcome, capability to live well with dementia, and the factors influencing it using questionnaires at yearly intervals for 3 years. Additionally, we will seek to link the cohort data with administrative data to obtain information about health service use. Some participants will be invited for in-depth face-to-face interviews. The cohort study will be supplemented by linked research focusing on: the co-production of new measures of living well; including the perspectives of people with advanced dementia living in residential care settings; including people with dementia from black, Asian, and minority ethnic groups; and understanding the experience of people living with undiagnosed dementia. IDEAL-2 will provide evidence about the key indicators of, and factors associated with, living well over the course of dementia and how these differ for particular subgroups. It will tell us which combinations of services and support are most beneficial and cost-effective. Moreover, the IDEAL-2 study will gather evidence from underresearched groups of people with dementia, who are likely to have their own distinct perceptions of living well.
    • The relationship between perceived functional difficulties and the ability to live well with mild-to-moderate dementia: Findings from the IDEAL programme.

      Martyr, A.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Rusted, J.M.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2019)
      Objectives: The objectives of the study are to investigate how different levels of functional ability relate to quality of life, well‐being, and satisfaction with life, conceptualised as reflecting capability to “live well” in people with dementia. Methods/design: Participants were 1496 people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia and 1188 informants who completed baseline assessments in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort study. Total selfrated and informant‐rated scores on the Functional Activities Questionnaire were split into six ability levels to monitor how poorer functioning impacts the ability to live well. We also investigated the potential influence of sociodemographic and diagnostic variables, depression, cognition, and carer stress. Results: Multivariate multiple regression models found that people with dementia who had the greatest functional impairment according to self‐ratings and informant ratings had poorer living well scores than those with the least functional impairment. Sociodemographic and diagnostic factors and cognition had little impact on effect sizes. For self‐ratings, depression attenuated the relationship between functional ability and living well, whereas carer stress attenuated informant ratings. Conclusions: People with dementia with the least functional impairments had greater capability to live well than those with the most functional impairment. Even subtle perceived difficulties in functional ability had a detrimental effect on the ability of people with dementia to live well. Depression in people with dementia and carer stress in informants influenced these associations, and therefore, these factors should be routinely included in future research studies and clinical assessments.
    • Use and costs of services and unpaid care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia: Baseline results from the IDEAL cohort study

      Henderson, C.; Knapp, M.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, A.; Wu, Y.T.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019)
      Introduction We examined 3-month service use and costs of care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia in Great Britain. Methods We analyzed Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study baseline data on paid care, out-of-pocket expenditure, and unpaid care from participants with dementia (N = 1547) and their carers (N = 1283). In regression analyses, we estimated per-group mean costs of diagnostic and sociodemographic subgroups. Results Use of services apart from primary and outpatient hospital care was low. Unpaid care accounted for three-quarters of total costs (mean, £4008 [standard error, £130] per participant). Most participants (87%) received unpaid care equating to 36 hours weekly. Estimated costs for people with Parkinson's dementia were £8609, £4359 for participants with mixed dementia, and £3484 for those with Alzheimer's disease. Total costs were lower for participants with dementia living alone than living with others (£2484 vs. £4360); costs were lower for female than for male participants (£3607 vs. £4272). Discussion Costs varied by dementia subtype, carer status, and living arrangement. Policy makers should recognize the high costs of unpaid care for people with dementia, who do not always get the support that they need or would like to receive.