• Clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of three alternative compression systems used in the management of venous leg ulcers

      Guest, J.F.; Gerrish, A.; Ayoub, N.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2015)
      OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of using a two-layer cohesive compression bandage (TLCCB; Coban 2) compared with a two-layer compression system (TLCS; Ktwo) and a four-layer compression system (FLCS; Profore) in treating venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in clinical practice in the UK, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS). METHOD: This was a retrospective analysis of the case records of VLU patients, randomly extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database (a nationally representative database of clinical practice among patients registered with general practitioners in the UK), who were treated with either TLCCB (n=250), TLCS (n=250) or FLCS (n=175). Clinical outcomes and health-care resource use (and costs) over six months after starting treatment with each compression system were estimated. Differences in outcomes and resource use between treatments were adjusted for differences in baseline covariates. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 75 years old and 57% were female. The mean time with a VLU was 6-7 months and the mean initial wound size was 77-85 cm2. The overall VLU healing rate, irrespective of bandage type, was 44% over the six months' study period. In the TLCCB group, 51% of wounds had healed by six months compared with 40% (p=0.03) and 28% (p=0.001) in the TLCS and FLCS groups, respectively. The mean time to healing was 2.5 months. Patients in the TLCCB group experienced better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over six months (0.374 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient), compared with the TLCS (0.368 QALYs per patient) and FLCS (0.353 QALYs per patient). The mean six-monthly NHS management cost was pound2,413, pound2,707 and pound2,648 per patient in the TLCCB, TLCS and FLCS groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite the systems studied reporting similar compression levels when tested in controlled studies, real-world evidence demonstrates that initiating treatment with TLCCB, compared with the other two compression systems, affords a more cost-effective use of NHS-funded resources in clinical practice, since it resulted in an increased healing rate, better HRQoL and a reduction in NHS management cost. The evidence also highlighted the lack of continuity between clinicians managing a wound, the inconsistent nature of the administered treatments and the lack of specialist involvement, all of which may impact on healing. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This study was supported by an unrestricted research grant from 3M Health Care, UK. 3M Health Care had no influence on the study design, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, or on the writing of, and decision to submit for publication, the manuscript.
    • Health economic burden that different wound types impose on the UK’s National Health Service

      Guest, J.F.; Ayoub, N.; Mcilwraith, T.; Uchegbu, I.; Gerrish, A.; Weidlick, D.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2017-03-01)
      The aim of this study was to estimate the patterns of care and annual levels of health care resource use attributable to the management of different wound types by UK’s National Health Service (NHS) in 2012/2013 and the annual costs incurred by the NHS in managing them. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of the records of 2000 patients in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) Database. Patients’ characteristics, wound-related health outcomes and all health care resource use were quanti ed, and the total NHS cost of patient management was estimated at 2013/2014 prices. The NHS managed an estimated 2⋅2 million patients with a wound during 2012/2013. Patients were predominantly managed in the community by general practitioners and nurses. The annual NHS cost varied between £1⋅94 billion for managing 731 000 leg ulcers and £89⋅6 million for managing 87 000 burns. Sixty-one percent of all wounds were shown to heal in an average year. Resource use associated with managing the unhealed wounds was substantially greater than that of managing the healed wounds (e.g. 20% more practice nurse visits, 104% more community nurse visits). Consequently, the annual cost of managing wounds that healed in the study period was estimated to be £2⋅1 billion compared with £3⋅2 billion for the 39% of wounds that did not heal within the study year. Within the study period, the cost per healed wound ranged from £698 to £3998 per patient and that of an unhealed wound ranged from £1791 to £5976 per patient. Hence, the patient care cost of an unhealed wound was a mean 135% more than that of a healed wound. Real-world evidence highlights the substantial burden that wounds impose on the NHS in an average year. Clinical and economic bene ts to both patients and the NHS could accrue from strategies that focus on (a) wound prevention, (b) accurate diagnosis and (c) improving wound-healing rates.
    • Health economic burden that wounds impose on the National Health Service in the UK

      Guest, J.F.; Ayoub, N.; McIlwraith, T.; Uchegbu, I.; Gerrish, A.; Weidlich, D.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2015-12-07)
      OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wounds managed by the UK's National Health Service (NHS) in 2012/2013 and the annual levels of healthcare resource use attributable to their management and corresponding costs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of the records of patients in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) Database. Records of 1000 adult patients who had a wound in 2012/2013 (cases) were randomly selected and matched with 1000 patients with no history of a wound (controls). Patients' characteristics, wound-related health outcomes and all healthcare resource use were quantified and the total NHS cost of patient management was estimated at 2013/2014 prices. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 69.0 years and 45% were male. 76% of patients presented with a new wound in the study year and 61% of wounds healed during the study year. Nutritional deficiency (OR 0.53; p<0.001) and diabetes (OR 0.65; p<0.001) were independent risk factors for non-healing. There were an estimated 2.2 million wounds managed by the NHS in 2012/2013. Annual levels of resource use attributable to managing these wounds and associated comorbidities included 18.6 million practice nurse visits, 10.9 million community nurse visits, 7.7 million GP visits and 3.4 million hospital outpatient visits. The annual NHS cost of managing these wounds and associated comorbidities was pound5.3 billion. This was reduced to between pound5.1 and pound4.5 billion after adjusting for comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Real world evidence highlights wound management is predominantly a nurse-led discipline. Approximately 30% of wounds lacked a differential diagnosis, indicative of practical difficulties experienced by non-specialist clinicians. Wounds impose a substantial health economic burden on the UK's NHS, comparable to that of managing obesity ( pound5.0 billion). Clinical and economic benefits could accrue from improved systems of care and an increased awareness of the impact that wounds impose on patients and the NHS.