• Barriers and facilitators of successful deprescribing as described by older patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians: a qualitative interview study

      Peat, George W.; Fylan, Beth; Marques, Iuri; Rayner, D.K.; Breen, Liz; Olaniyan, Janice; Alldred, David P. (2022-03)
      Objective To explore the barriers/facilitators to deprescribing in primary care in England from the perspectives of clinicians, patients living with frailty who reside at home, and their informal carers, drawing on the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify behavioural components associated with barriers/facilitators of the process. Design Exploratory qualitative study. Setting General practice (primary care) in England. Participants 9 patients aged 65+ living with frailty who attended a consultation to reduce or stop a medicine/s. 3 informal carers of patients living with frailty. 14 primary care clinicians including general practitioners, practice pharmacists and advanced nurse practitioners. Methods Qualitative semistructured interviews took place with patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians. Patients (n=9) and informal carers (n=3) were interviewed two times: immediately after deprescribing and 5/6 weeks later. Clinicians (n=14) were interviewed once. In total, 38 interviews were undertaken. Framework analysis was applied to manage and analyse the data. Results 6 themes associated with facilitators and barriers to deprescribing were generated, respectively, with each supported by between two and three subthemes. Identified facilitators of deprescribing with patients living with frailty included shared decision-making, gradual introduction of the topic, clear communication of the topic to the patient and multidisciplinary working. Identified barriers of deprescribing included consultation constraints, patients' fear of negative consequences and inaccessible terminology and information. Conclusions This paper offers timely insight into the barriers and facilitators to deprescribing for patients living with frailty within the context of primary care in England. As deprescribing continues to grow in national and international significance, it is important that future deprescribing interventions acknowledge the current barriers and facilitators and their associated behavioural components experienced by clinicians, patients living with frailty and their informal carers to improve the safety and effectiveness of the process.
    • Cardiology patients' medicines management networks after hospital discharge: A mixed methods analysis of a complex adaptive system

      Fylan, Beth; Tranmer, M.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2019-05)
      Introduction: The complex healthcare system that provides patients with medicines places them at risk when care is transferred between healthcare organisations, for example discharge from hospital. Consequently, under-standing and improving medicines management, particularly at care transfers, is a priority.Objectives: This study aimed to explore the medicines management system as patients experience it and determine differences in the patient-perceived importance of people in the system.Methods: We used a Social Network Analysis framework, collecting ego-net data about the importance of people patients had contact with concerning their medicines after hospital discharge. Single- and multi-level logistic regression models of patients' networks were constructed, and model residuals were explored at the patient level.This enabled us to identify patients' networks with support tie patterns different from the general patterns suggested by the model results. Qualitative data for those patients were then analysed to understand their differing experiences.Results: Networks comprised clinical and administrative healthcare staff and friends and family members.Networks were highly individual and the perceived importance of alters varied both within and between patients. Ties to spouses were significantly more likely to be rated as highly important and ties to community pharmacy staff (other than pharmacists) and to GP receptionists were less likely to be highly rated. Patients with low-value medicines management networks described having limited information about their medicines and alack of understanding or help. Patients with high-value networks described appreciating support and having confidence in staff.Conclusions: Patients experienced medicines management as individual systems within which they interacted with healthcare staff and informal support to manage their treatment. Multilevel models indicated that there are unexplained variables impacting on patients' assessments of their medicines management networks. Qualitative exploration of the model residuals can offer an understanding of networks that do not have the typical range of support ties.
    • Interventions for self-management of medicines for community dwelling people with dementia, mild cognitive impairment and family carers: a systematic review

      Powell, Catherine; Tomlinson, Justine; Quinn, Catherine; Fylan, Beth (2022)
      Background People with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their family carers face challenges in managing medicines. How medicines self-management could be supported for this population is unclear. This review identifies interventions to improve medicines self-management for people with dementia, MCI and their family carers, and which core components of medicines self-management they address. Methods A database search was conducted for studies with all research designs and ongoing citation searches from inception to December 2021. Selection criteria included community dwelling people with dementia and MCI and their family carers, and interventions with a minimum of one medicine self-management component. Exclusion criteria were wrong population, not focusing on medicines management, incorrect medicines self-management components, not in English and wrong study design. Results are presented and analysed through narrative synthesis. The review is registered [PROSPERO (CRD42020213302)]. Quality assessment was carried out independently applying the QATSDD quality assessment tool. Results Thirteen interventions were identified. Interventions primarily addressed adherence. A limited number focused on a wider range of medicine self-management components. Complex psychosocial interventions with frequent visits considered the person’s knowledge and understanding, supply management, monitoring effects and side-effects and communicating with healthcare professionals; and addressed more resilience capabilities. However, these interventions were delivered to family carers alone. None of the interventions described patient and public involvement. Conclusion Interventions, and measures to assess self-management, need to be developed which address all components of medicines self-management, to better meet the needs for people with dementia and MCI and their family carers.
    • Missed opportunities: the role of community pharmacy after discharge from cardiology wards.

      Fylan, Beth; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Armitage, Gerry R.; Naylor, Deirdre (2014)
      This research aims to develop a better understanding of how cardiology patients experience the care provided by community pharmacy after discharge from hospital. • Contact with community pharmacists is infrequent and can be via a proxy. Patients’ experiences of community pharmacy care are limited and many patients have unmet medicines use support needs. • Community pharmacy misses opportunities to support patients in their medicines use after hospital discharge
    • Patients as qualitative data analysts: Developing a method for a process evaluation of the ‘Improving the Safety and Continuity of Medicines management at care Transitions’ (ISCOMAT) cluster randomised control trial

      Powell, Catherine; Ismail, Hanif; Cleverley, R.; Taylor, A.; Breen, Liz; Fylan, Beth; Alderson, S.L.; Alldred, David P. (2021-08)
      Background: How to meaningfully partner with patients as data analysts remains obscure. A process evaluation of the ‘Improving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at care Transitions’ (ISCOMAT) cluster randomised control trial of an intervention for improving medicines use for people living with heart failure is being conducted. The intervention includes patient held information on heart medicines and care, enhanced communication between hospital and community pharmacists, and increased engagement of community pharmacists with patient care post-hospital discharge. ISCOMAT patients living with heart failure were interviewed about experiences with the intervention. We sought to gain insights from patients on data collected to enhance our understanding of experiences with the intervention. Objective: To develop a method for involving patients as analysts of qualitative data in a process evaluation. Design: Patients and researchers co-analysed qualitative data. A framework method was applied involving; familiarisation, coding, developing an analytical framework and interpretation. The process was facilitated through home working and a workshop with a training component. Results: The co-designed framework enabled researchers to map all further patient interview data. Patients' specialist knowledge enhanced understanding of how the ISCOMAT intervention can be best implemented. Conclusions: Patients’ unique experiences can enhance validity and rigour in data analysis through sharing their interpretations of qualitative data. The involvement process is crucial in elucidating knowledge and avoiding tokenism. As analysts, patients gain an appreciation of research processes, building trust between researchers and patients. Group dynamics and involving patients throughout the whole research process are important considerations.