• Dizziness, but not falls rate, improves after routine cataract surgery: the role of refractive and spectacle changes

      Supuk, Elvira; Alderson, Alison J.; Davey, Christopher J.; Green, Clare; Litvin, Norman; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B. (2016-03)
      Purpose To determine whether dizziness and falls rates change due to routine cataract surgery and to determine the influence of spectacle type and refractive factors. Methods Self-reported dizziness and falls were determined in 287 patients (mean age of 76.5 ± 6.3 years, 55% females) before and after routine cataract surgery for the first (81, 28%), second (109, 38%) and both eyes (97, 34%). Dizziness was determined using the short-form of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Six-month falls rates were determined using self-reported retrospective data. Results The number of patients with dizziness reduced significantly after cataract surgery (52% vs 38%; χ2 = 19.14, p < 0.001), but the reduction in the number of patients who fell in the 6-months post surgery was not significant (23% vs 20%; χ2 = 0.87, p = 0.35). Dizziness improved after first eye surgery (49% vs 33%, p = 0.01) and surgery on both eyes (58% vs 35%, p < 0.001), but not after second eye surgery (52% vs 45%, p = 0.68). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found significant links between post-operative falls and change in spectacle type (increased risk if switched into multifocal spectacles). Post-operative dizziness was associated with changes in best eye visual acuity and changes in oblique astigmatic correction. Conclusions Dizziness is significantly reduced by first (or both) eye cataract surgery and this is linked with improvements in best eye visual acuity, although changes in oblique astigmatic correction increased dizziness. The lack of improvement in falls rate may be associated with switching into multifocal spectacle wear after surgery.
    • Factors influencing accuracy of referral and the likelihood of false positive referral by optometrists in Bradford, United Kingdom

      Davey, Christopher J.; Scally, Andy J.; Green, Clare; Mitchell, E.S.; Elliott, David B. (2016-07)
      Aims: Levels of false positive referral to ophthalmology departments can be high. This study aimed to evaluate commonality between false positive referrals in order to find the factors which may influence referral accuracy. Methods: In 2007/08, a sample of 431 new Ophthalmology referrals from the catchment area of Bradford Royal Infirmary were retrospectively analysed. Results: The proportion of false positive referrals generated by optometrists decreases with experience at a rate of 6.2% per year since registration (p < 0.0001). Community services which involved further investigation done by the optometrist before directly referring to the hospital were 2.7 times less likely to refer false positively than other referral formats (p = 0.007). Male optometrists were about half as likely to generate a false positive referral than females (OR = 0.51, p = 0.008) and as multiple/corporate practices in the Bradford area employ less experienced and more female staff, independent practices generate about half the number of false positive referrals (OR = 0.52, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Clinician experience has the greatest effect on referral accuracy although there is also a significant effect of gender with women tending to refer more false positives. This may be due to a different approach to patient care and possibly a greater sensitivity to litigation. The improved accuracy of community services (which often refer directly after further investigation) supports further growth of these schemes.