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  • Use and costs of services and unpaid care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia: Baseline results from the IDEAL cohort study

    Henderson, C.; Knapp, M.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, A.; Wu, Y.T.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019)
    Introduction We examined 3-month service use and costs of care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia in Great Britain. Methods We analyzed Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study baseline data on paid care, out-of-pocket expenditure, and unpaid care from participants with dementia (N = 1547) and their carers (N = 1283). In regression analyses, we estimated per-group mean costs of diagnostic and sociodemographic subgroups. Results Use of services apart from primary and outpatient hospital care was low. Unpaid care accounted for three-quarters of total costs (mean, £4008 [standard error, £130] per participant). Most participants (87%) received unpaid care equating to 36 hours weekly. Estimated costs for people with Parkinson's dementia were £8609, £4359 for participants with mixed dementia, and £3484 for those with Alzheimer's disease. Total costs were lower for participants with dementia living alone than living with others (£2484 vs. £4360); costs were lower for female than for male participants (£3607 vs. £4272). Discussion Costs varied by dementia subtype, carer status, and living arrangement. Policy makers should recognize the high costs of unpaid care for people with dementia, who do not always get the support that they need or would like to receive.
  • Variation and interactional non-standardization in neuropsychological tests: The case of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination

    Jones, Danielle K.; Wilkinson, R.; Jackson, C.; Drew, P. (2019)
    The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-111) is a neuropsychological test used in clinical practice to inform a dementia diagnosis. The ACE-111 relies on standardized administration so that patients’ scores can be interpreted by comparison with normative scores. The test is delivered and responded to in interaction between clinicians and patients, which places talk-in-interaction at the heart of its administration. In this article, conversation analysis (CA) is used to investigate how the ACE-111 is delivered in clinical practice. Based on analysis of 40 video/audio-recorded memory clinic consultations in which the ACE-111 was used, we have found that administrative standardization is rarely achieved in practice. There was evidence of both (a) interactional variation in the way the clinicians introduce the test and (b) interactional non-standardization during its implementation. We show that variation and interactional non-standardization have implications for patients’ understanding and how they might respond to particular questions.
  • Building resilience in contemporary nursing practice

    Best, Catherine (2019-08)
    The nursing profession is being threatened by staff shortages. Catherine Best explains why building resilience from within the profession is vital to safeguarding its future, by keeping newly qualified nurses in the job and preventing emotional ‘burnout’ across disciplines Resilience in nursing has been critiqued and challenged throughout the nursing literature. Trends in nursing have led to many nurses leaving the profession early in their career, often due to the immense pressures that they work under. There are many opinions on how nurses can develop the resilience needed to maintain professional integrity and continue to provide safe and effective care, while attempting to shoulder the considerable impact of political and professional drivers. This not only leaves nurses exhausted but often without hope. By taking collective action, this article argues that nurses may benefit from sharing ideas and learning from others, and in so doing rekindle hope and a belief that things can change.
  • Self-esteem, self-efficacy and optimism as psychological resources among family caregivers of people with dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

    Lamont, R.A.; Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Rusted, J.M.; Hindle, J.V.; Longdon, B.; Clare, L. (2019-09)
    Being a family caregiver, and in particular giving care to someone with dementia, impacts upon mental and physical health, and potentially reduces the ability of caregivers to ‘live well’. This paper examines whether three key psychological resources, self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem, are associated with better outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia. Design and Participants Caregivers of 1283 people with mild-to-moderate dementia in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) project responded to measures of selfefficacy, optimism and self-esteem, and ‘living well’ (quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between psychological resources and ‘living well’. Results Self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem were all independently associated with better capability to ‘live well’ for caregivers. This association persisted when accounting for a number of potential confounding variables (age group, sex, and hours of caregiving per day). Conclusions Low self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem might present a risk of poor outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia. These findings encourage us to consider how new or established interventions might increase the psychological resilience of caregivers.
  • Key sources of operational inefficiency in the PSC

    Papelexi, M.; Bamford, D.; Breen, Liz (Emerald, 2019)
    Purpose: This study explores the downstream Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (PSC) and provides insight to the delivery process of medicines and associated operational inefficiencies. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory, qualitative approach was adopted to examine PSC inefficiency within two European contexts: the UK and Greece. Data was gathered through interviews and a thematic analysis conducted to analyse the data and identify challenges faced by both supply chains. Findings: The medicines delivery system needs to be enhanced in terms of quality, visibility, speed and cost in order to perform effectively. The findings demonstrated that although the healthcare supply chains in the two European contexts have different operational structures, the results are in concordance with each other. Financial, communication, waste and complexity issues were the major concerns. Research limitations/implications: To our knowledge this is the first study to examine aspects of the medicines supply chain via a cross-case analysis in the UK and Greece and extends the body of knowledge. A broader sample of responses is warranted to further validate these findings. Practical implications: The study outputs can inform pharmacies’ strategic to instigate targeted improvement interventions. The implications of which may be extrapolated further to other European healthcare organisations. Originality/value: This research contributes to the academic literature by adding further theoretical insights to supply chain strategy development, especially those that have been characterised as highly complex. The study identifies 4 key areas of intervention needed within this supply chain (in both countries) to promote higher level efficiencies and effectiveness.
  • Wise Up to Cancer Bradford: Improving cancer prevention and earlier diagnosis for South Asian women in Bradford

    Almas, N.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Nejadhamzeegilani, Z.; Payne, D.; Rattray, Marcus (University of Bradford, 2019-09)
  • Evidence-based intervention to reduce avoidable hospital admissions in care home residents (the Better Health in Residents in Care Homes (BHiRCH) study): Protocol for a pilot cluster randomised trial

    Sampson, E.L.; Feast, A.; Blighe, Alan J.; Froggatt, K.; Hunter, R.; Marston, L.; McCormack, B.; Nurock, S.; Panca, M.; Powell, Catherine; et al. (2019-05)
    Introduction: Acute hospital admission is distressing for care home residents. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions, such as respiratory and urinary tract infections, are conditions that can cause unplanned hospital admission but may have been avoidable with timely detection and intervention in the community. The Better Health in Residents in Care Homes (BHiRCH) programme has feasibility tested and will pilot a multicomponent intervention to reduce these avoidable hospital admissions. The BHiRCH intervention comprises an early warning tool for noting changes in resident health, a care pathway (clinical guidance and decision support system) and a structured method for communicating with primary care, adapted for use in the care home. We use practice development champions to support implementation and embed changes in care. Methods and analysis: Cluster randomised pilot trial to test study procedures and indicate whether a further definitive trial is warranted. Fourteen care homes with nursing (nursing homes) will be randomly allocated to intervention (delivered at nursing home level) or control groups. Two nurses from each home become Practice Development Champions trained to implement the intervention, supported by a practice development support group. Data will be collected for 3 months preintervention, monthly during the 12-month intervention and 1 month after. Individual-level data includes resident, care partner and staff demographics, resident functional status, service use and quality of life (for health economic analysis) and the extent to which staff perceive the organisation supports person centred care. System-level data includes primary and secondary health services contacts (ie, general practitioner and hospital admissions). Process evaluation assesses intervention acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, ease of implementation in practice and study procedures (ie, consent and recruitment rates).
  • The public health end-of-life care movement: History, principles, and styles of practice

    Karapliagou, Aliki; Kellehear, Allan; Wegleitner, K. (Oxford University Press, 2018)
  • Video rasterstereography of the spine and pelvis in eight erect positions: A reliability study

    Alzyoud, K.; Hogg, P.; Snaith, Beverly; Preece, S.; England, A. (2019)
    Introduction: To investigate the reliability and variability of Video Rasterstereography (VR) measurements of the spine and pelvis, for eight proposed standing postures, in order to help define an optimal standing position for erect pelvis radiography. Methods: Surface topography data were collected using the formetic 4D dynamic modelling (Diers) system. 61 healthy participants were recruited; each participant performed eight different standing positions. Four positions were performed with the feet shoulder width apart and parallel, and four positions were performed with the feet shoulder width apart and internally rotated. For the upper extremity, each of the (two sets of) four positions were performed with different arm positions (arms by the sides, arms crossed over the chest, arms 30° flexed and touching the medial end of the clavicle, arms 30° flexed with the hands holding a support). Three sets of surface topography were collected in the eight positions (n = 24). The variability was assessed by calculating standard error of the measurement (SEm) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC ± 95% CI). Results: No significant differences in the SEm were found between the three paired measurements for all standing positions (P > 0.05). ICC values demonstrated excellent reliability for all measurements across the eight standing positions (range 0.879–1.00 [95% CI 0.813–1.00]). Conclusion: Evaluating eight standing positions radiographically would be unethical as it would involve repeat radiation exposures. Using the formetic 4D dynamic modelling (Diers) system, provides an alternative and has shown that there was only a minimal, non-statistically significant, differences between the eight different standing positions.
  • Variation in pelvic radiography practice: Why can we not standardise image acquisition techniques?

    Snaith, Beverly; Field, L.; Lewis, E.F.; Flintham, K. (2019-11)
    Introduction: Pelvic radiographs remain an essential investigation in orthopaedic practice. Although it is recognised that acquisition techniques can affect image appearances and measurement accuracy, it remains unclear what variation in practice exists and what impact this could have on decision making. Method: This was a cross sectional survey of UK radiology departments utilising an electronic tool. An introductory letter and link was distributed. Responses were received from 69 unique hospital sites within the specified timeframe, a response rate of 37.9%. Results: There was no consistent technique for the positioning of patients for pelvic radiographs. The distance varied between 90 and 115 cm and 10 different centering points were described. In relation to leg position, the feet are usually internally rotated (65 of 69 [94.2%]). Only 1 teaching hospital (1 of 69 [1.4%]) uses a weight-bearing position as standard. Orthopaedic calibration devices were not in routine use, with only 21 using on pelvic x-rays (30.4%). Further, the type of device and application criteria were inconsistent. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study to directly compare radiographic positioning across hospital sites. Our data demonstrated marked variation in technique for pelvis radiographs with associated implications for clinical decision making. Research is required to determine the standard technique and quality outcome measures to provide confidence in diagnostic interpretation particularly for serial radiographs.
  • Expanding training capacity for radiographer reporting using simulation: Evaluation of a pilot academy project

    Harcus, J.W.; Snaith, Beverly (2019-11)
    Introduction: Whilst there is increasing demand on radiology services in the UK, pressures are restricting the expansion of the multi-professional workforce. A pilot academy for radiography reporting was established to augment the traditional university and clinical education in a simulated environment using focussed teaching and real image worklists in a dedicated environment away from departments. Methods: Located at a facility to replicate the clinical reporting environment, the emphasis of the nine-month pilot was to provide extensive ‘hands-on’ training to eight trainees. Evaluation of the academy was undertaken through focus groups, telephone interviews, and online surveys to consider the experiences of the trainees and their managers and mentors. Results: There was overwhelming support for the academy from trainees, mentors, and managers. Key benefits included relieving pressures on department and mentors; providing an intense, structured, and safe environment to learn; and, perhaps most importantly, an extensive and cohesive peer-support network. Issues identified included conflict within departments due to differences in reporting style and the need for greater collaboration between the university, academy, and departments. Conclusion: The use of simulation in education is widely researched, however, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered when implementing it into practise. Peer-support and reflection is seen as essential for its success. Extensive dedicated time to focus on reporting alongside peers can support the development of these skills away from the clinical environment and as such can reduce pressure on service delivery and positively influence learner outcomes.
  • Radiographer reporting: A literature review to support cancer workforce planning in England

    Culpan, Gary; Culpan, A.-M.; Docherty, P.; Denton, E. (2019)
    Objective: Clinical Imaging contributes to screening, diagnosis, planning and monitoring of treatment and surveillance in cancer care. This literature review summarises evidence about radiographer reporting to help imaging service providers respond to Health Education England's 2017 Cancer Workforce Plan project to expand radiographer reporting in clinical service provision. Key findings: Papers published between 1992 and 2018 were reviewed (n ¼ 148). Evidence related to dynamic examinations (fluoroscopy, ultrasound) and mammography was excluded. Content was analysed and summarised using the following headings: clinical scope of practice, responsibilities, training, assessment, impact in practice and barriers to expansion. Radiographer reporting is well established in the United Kingdom. Scope of practice varies individually and geographically. Deployment of appropriately trained reporting radiographers is helping the NHS maintain high quality clinical imaging service provision and deliver a cost-effective increase in diagnostic capacity. Conclusion: Working within multiprofessional clinical imaging teams, within a defined scope of practice and with access to medical input when required, reporting radiographers augment capacity in diagnostic pathways and release radiologist time for other complex clinical imaging responsibilities.
  • Letter re: Comparison of acetabular and femoral morphologies on hip, pelvic, and lumbar radiographs (Yun et al.)

    Snaith, Beverly; Flintham, K. (2018)
    We read with interest the recent article by Yun et al. [1] comparing acetabular and hip measurements across pelvis, hip and lumbar spine radiographs. The authors assert that lumbar radiographs can be utilised in place of routine pelvis radiographs for these measurements. The example lumbar spine radiograph (figure 2) appears to be an abdominal image, with a contrast urogram. Indeed, standard texts [2,3] confirm that the anteroposterior lumbar spine radiograph should not include any coverage of the hips as appropriate collimation should limit the anatomy to T12 superiorly, lower sacrum inferiorly and the sacroiliac joints laterally, which would exclude the hip joints. Thus assessing any hip measurements on an appropriately collimated lumbar spine radiograph should not be possible. This is further compounded by the description of the centring point within their study (iliac crest), which varies from the internationally recognised standard of lower costal margin/L3 [2,3].
  • The impact of relationship quality on life satisfaction and well-being in dementia caregiving dyads: findings from the IDEAL study

    Rippon, I.; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, A.; Morris, R.; Nelis, S.M.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Clare, L. (2019)
    Objectives: The quality of the relationship between people with dementia and their informal caregiver maybe an important determinant of life satisfaction and well-being for both members of the dyad. Taking a dyadic perspective, the aim of this study was to examine whether self- and partner- rated relationship quality influences life satisfaction and well-being for both people with dementia and their caregivers. Design and methods: Using data from 1283 dyads in the Improving the Experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort, we examined the impact of current relationship quality on life satisfaction and well-being in dementia caregiving dyads. Data were analysed using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) framework. Results: Self-rated relationship quality was associated with own life satisfaction and well-being for both people with dementia and caregivers. Partner-rated relationship quality did not influence own life satisfaction or well-being for either member of the dyad. Conclusion: This study is the first to use the APIM framework to explore the dyadic associations between relationship quality and life satisfaction and well-being in a large cohort of dementia caregiving dyads. The obtained findings suggest that the individual perception of the quality of the caregiving relationship held by each member of the caregiving dyad is an important factor for that member’s life satisfaction and well-being, while the partner’s perception of relationship quality is not. The findings highlight the importance of considering the individual perspective of both the person with dementia and the caregiver and enabling each to maintain positive perceptions of relationship quality.
  • Medication-related risk factors and its association with repeated hospital admissions in frail elderly: A case control study

    Cheong, V-Lin; Sowter, Julie; Scally, Andy J.; Hamilton, N.; Ali, A.; Silcock, Jonathan (2019)
    Repeated hospital admissions are prevalent in older people. The role of medication in repeated hospital admissions has not been widely studied. The hypothesis that medication-related risk factors for initial hospital admissions were also associated with repeated hospital admissions was generated. To examine the association between medication-related risk factors and repeated hospital admissions in older people living with frailty. A retrospective case-control study was carried out with 200 patients aged ≥75 years with unplanned medical admissions into a large teaching hospital in England between January and December 2015. Demographic, clinical, and medication-related data were obtained from review of discharge summaries. Statistical comparisons were made between patients with 3 or more hospital admissions during the study period (cases) and those with 2 or fewer admissions (controls). Regressions were performed to establish independent predictors of repeated hospital admissions. Participants had a mean age of 83.8 years (SD 5.68) and 65.5% were female. There were 561 admission episodes across the sample, with the main reasons for admissions recorded as respiratory problems (25%) and falls (17%). Univariate logistic regression revealed five medication-related risks to be associated with repeated hospital admissions: Hyper-polypharmacy (defined as taking ≥10 medications) (OR 2.50, p < 0.005); prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) (OR 1.89; p < 0.05); prescription of a diuretic (OR 1.87; p < 0.05); number of high risk medication (OR 1.29; p < 0.05) and the number of 'when required' medication (OR 1.20; p < 0.05). However, the effects of these risk factors became insignificant when comorbid disease was adjusted for in a multivariable model. Medication-related risk factors may play an important role in future repeated admission risk prediction models. The modifiable nature of medication-related risks factors highlights a real opportunity to improve health outcomes.
  • Caregiver influences on 'living well' for people with dementia: Findings from the IDEAL study.

    Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Morris, R.G.; Victor, C.; Clare, L. (2019-05)
    Objectives: The capability to ‘live well’ in people with dementia can be influenced by many factors, including those related to the experiences of their informal caregiver. How caregivers experience their own role can affect not only their well-being but also the way they provide care and hence the experience of the person with dementia. The aim of this study is to identify the potential impact of the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience on how people with mild to moderate dementia self-rate their QoL, well-being and satisfaction with life. Method: This study utilised time-point 1 data from 1283 informal caregiver and the 1283 people with dementia whom they provide care from the IDEAL cohort study. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the associations between measures related to the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience (caregiving stress, perceived social restrictions, caregiving competence, positive aspects of caregiving, and coping) and the self-ratings of QoL, satisfaction with life, and well-being by the person with dementia. Results: Lower QoL ratings by the person with dementia were associated with high caregiver stress (−1.98; 95% CI: −2.89, −1.07), high perceived social restrictions (−2.04; 95% CI: −2.94, −1.14) and low caregiving competence (−2.01; 95% CI: −2.95, −1.06). Similar associations were found for satisfaction with life and wellbeing. Positive aspects of caregiving and coping were not associated with outcomes for the person with dementia. Conclusion: The findings indicate that how the caregiver experiences caregiving can affect the person with dementia. This finding reinforces the importance of providing support to caregivers.
  • The relationship between perceived functional difficulties and the ability to live well with mild-to-moderate dementia: Findings from the IDEAL programme.

    Martyr, A.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Rusted, J.M.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2019)
    Objectives: The objectives of the study are to investigate how different levels of functional ability relate to quality of life, well‐being, and satisfaction with life, conceptualised as reflecting capability to “live well” in people with dementia. Methods/design: Participants were 1496 people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia and 1188 informants who completed baseline assessments in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort study. Total selfrated and informant‐rated scores on the Functional Activities Questionnaire were split into six ability levels to monitor how poorer functioning impacts the ability to live well. We also investigated the potential influence of sociodemographic and diagnostic variables, depression, cognition, and carer stress. Results: Multivariate multiple regression models found that people with dementia who had the greatest functional impairment according to self‐ratings and informant ratings had poorer living well scores than those with the least functional impairment. Sociodemographic and diagnostic factors and cognition had little impact on effect sizes. For self‐ratings, depression attenuated the relationship between functional ability and living well, whereas carer stress attenuated informant ratings. Conclusions: People with dementia with the least functional impairments had greater capability to live well than those with the most functional impairment. Even subtle perceived difficulties in functional ability had a detrimental effect on the ability of people with dementia to live well. Depression in people with dementia and carer stress in informants influenced these associations, and therefore, these factors should be routinely included in future research studies and clinical assessments.
  • Compassionate communities: design and preliminary results of the experience of Vic (Barcelona, Spain) caring city

    Gómez-Batiste, X.; Mateu, S.; Serra-Jofre, S.; Molas, M.; Mir-Roca, S.; Amblàs, J.; Costa, X.; Lasmarías, C.; Serrarols, M.; Solà-Serrabou, A.; et al. (2018)
    Background: A program of Compassionate City or Community (CC) has been designed and developed in the City of Vic (43,964 habitants, Barcelona, Spain), based on The Compassionate City Charter and other public health literature and experiments, with the joint leadership of the City Council and the Chair of Palliative Care at the University of Vic, and as an expansion of a comprehensive and integrated system of palliative care. Methods: The program started with an assessment of needs of the city as identified by 48 social organizations with a foundational workshop and a semi-structured survey. After this assessment, the mission, vision, values and aims were agreed. The main aims consisted in promoting changes in social and cultural attitudes toward the end of life (EoL) and providing integrated care for people with advanced chronic conditions and social needs such as loneliness, poverty, low access to services at home, or conflict. The selected slogan was “Living with meaning, dignity, and support the end of life”. Results: The program for the first year has included 19 activities (cultural, training, informative, and mixed) and followed by 1,260 attendants, and the training activities were followed by 147 people. Local and regional sponsors are funding the initiative. After a year, a quantitative and qualitative evaluation was performed, showing high participation and satisfaction of the attendants and organizations. In the second year, the care for particular vulnerable people defined as targets (EoL and social factors described before) will start with volunteers with more organizations to join the project. Conclusions: The key identified factors for the initial success are: the strong joint leadership between social department of the Council and the University; clear aims and targets; high participation rates; the limited size of the geographical context; which allowed high participation and recognition; and the commitment to evaluate results.
  • Assessing community readiness for early intervention programmes to promote social and emotional health in children

    Islam, Shahid; Small, Neil A.; Bryant, M.; Bridges, S.; Hancock, N.; Dickerson, J. (2019-06)
    Evidence for early intervention and prevention-based approaches for im-proving social and emotional health in young children is robust. However, rates of participation in programmes are low. We explored the dynamics which affect levels of community readiness to address the issues of social and emotional health for preg-nant women, young children (0-4 years) and their mothers.Setting:A deprived inner‐city housing estate in the north of England. The estate falls within the catchment area of a project that has been awarded long-term funding to address social and emotional health during pregnancy and early childhood.Methods:We interviewed key respondents using the Community Readiness Model. This approach applies a mixed methodology, incorporating readiness scores and qualitative data. A mean community readiness score was calculated enabling the placement of the community in one of nine possible stages of readiness. Interview transcripts were analysed using a qualitative framework approach to generate con-textual information to augment the numerical scores.Results:An overall score consistent with vague awareness was achieved, indicating a low level of community readiness for social and emotional health interventions. This score suggests that there will be a low likelihood of participation in programmes that address these issues.Conclusion:Gauging community readiness offers a way of predicting how willing and prepared a community is to address an issue. Modifying implementation plans so that they first address community readiness may improve participation rates.
  • Diet and physical activity in pregnancy: a study exploring women's beliefs and behaviours

    Chana, R.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie (2019-05-02)
    Being obese or gaining excessive weight during pregnancy can increase health risks for mother and baby. Adopting a healthy diet and increasing physical activity reduces these risks and has long-term health benefits for women. Despite this, women do not always maintain a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy. Aim To explore the factors that encouraged and prevented a diverse group of women to maintain a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy. Methods A total of 12 women participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, underpinned by the theory of planned behaviour. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim then subject to deductive thematic analysis. Findings Four themes emerged: women's knowledge of a healthy lifestyle, sociocultural influences, physical health and health professional support. These influenced women's intentions and actual behaviours during pregnancy. Conclusions Enhanced health professional advice may motivate women to adopt a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy. This could be through new means such as health technology.

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