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  • Differences of corruption types in selected Western and central-eastern health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review

    Gonzalez-Aquines, Alejandro; Cordero-Perez, A.C.; Kowalska-Bobko, I. (2023-10)
    To identify, describe, and classify the cases of health corruption present in selected Western [the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK)] and Central-Eastern European (Poland and Slovakia) countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. A rapid review of the literature was conducted, evaluating data from 11 March 2020 to 15 April 2021. Information sources included MEDLINE via WoS, IBSS via ProQuest, Scopus, and gray literature. Thirteen cases were identified across the four countries. The primary type of health corruption in Western European countries was procurement corruption, while misuse of (high) level positions was the most prevalent in Central-Eastern European countries. Actors from central governments were most involved in cases. The rule of law and anti-corruption watchdogs reported most cases in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, while the media reported cases in Poland and Slovakia. The differences in types of corruption in WE and CEE countries emphasize the need to contextualize the approach to tackle corruption. Thus, further research in preventing and tackling corruption is a vital and necessary undertaking despite the inherent of conducting health corruption research.
  • Identifying the Health Concerns of Pregnant British Pakistani Women Living in Deprived Areas: A Qualitative Study

    Iqbal, Halima; West, Jane; McEachan, Rosemary; Haith-Cooper, Melanie (2023)
    Introduction: Pregnant British Pakistani women have disproportionately poorer health than the wider population. Bradford has a strong Pakistani presence and a wide range of public health problems including high levels of gestational diabetes, high obesity rates and a high infant mortality rate, which is highest for babies of Pakistani origin. For women to be healthy, we need to know what concerns they have about their health so they can be addressed appropriately. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore the health concerns of pregnant British Pakistani women living in deprived areas. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant Pakistani women in a hospital setting. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Pakistani women identified safety issues, barriers to undertaking physical activity in the areas where they live, concerns surrounding exercising during pregnancy and cultural and religious constraints that prevented them from engaging in physical activity. They reported issues around food, concerns around a lack of culturally appropriate diet information, the cost of unhealthy food locally, and the lack of healthy food options in their residences. Women were unsure on where to obtain health promotion information and reported a lack of access in obtaining that information. Language barriers in accessing health promotion information were further reported as a concern. Discussion Researchers, midwives, health providers, local authority and policy makers interested in improving the health of pregnant Pakistani women may use these findings to develop further research and interventions to improve the poor health of this population.
  • Human resource capacity for information management in selected public healthcare facilities in Meru County, Kenya.

    Kiilu, Elizabeth M.; Okero, D.C.; Muiruri, L.; Owuondo, P.A. (2015)
    Reliable health information is essential for decision making in the healthcare system. Information management in Kenya was considered the weakest area under the Health Information System pillar mainly due to inadequate health workers capacity. The study therefore aimed at assessing health workers skills and current training needs for information management in the selected healthcare facilities. Cross-section research design was adopted and both purposive sampling technique and censuses were used to establish the study participants. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and results were presented in tables, charts and graphs. It was established that capacity building was usually undertaken through on-job trainings i.e. 85.1% (103) health workers had on-job training on filling of data collection tools and only 10% (13) had received formal classroom training on the same. Further, only 9.1% (11) health workers had received information management training while 90.9% (110) had not received such training. Health workers demonstrated below average skills on information management i.e. only 17.4% (21) could check for data accuracy, only 16.5% (20) could compute trends from bar charts and only 16.5% (20) could transform the data they collected into meaningful information for use. The researcher recommended that healthcare facilities management teams develop a competency based framework for defining the desired skill mix for information management and have a yearly Training Needs Assessment for assessing training needs for information management among the health workers.
  • Prognostic factors influencing HIV-free survival among infants enrolled for HIV early infant diagnosis services in selected hospitals in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Kiilu, Elizabeth M.; Karanja, S.; Kikuvi, G.; Wanzala, P. (2023-10-04)
    Despite being a preventable disease, pediatric HIV infection continues to be a public health concern due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Vertical transmission of HIV occurs when a mother living with HIV passes the virus to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Globally, the vertical transmission rate of HIV is 9% with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 90% of these infections. In Kenya, the national vertical transmission rates of HIV stood at 11.5% by the end of 2018, with a target to reduce vertical transmission rates to below 5% and 2% in breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding infants respectively, by the end of 2021. To determine the prognostic factors influencing HIV-free survival among infants enrolled for HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) services in selected hospitals in Nairobi County, Kenya. A prospective cohort study design was adopted. HIV exposed infants were recruited at six weeks to determine HIV-free survival over 12 months follow up. Simple random sampling was used to select 166 infants and data were collected from the mothers using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Log-rank tests were used to test for associations at the bi-variable level while Cox-proportional regression was used to analyze data at the multi-variable level, with the aid of STATA 14 software. Ethical approval was obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific Ethics Review Unit. The overall infant HIV incidence rate over one-year follow-up was 9 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 5.465-16.290). The failure event was defined as an infant with a positive PCR test during the study period with total failures being 13 (9.41%) over 12 months. Prognostic factors associated with poor infant HIV-free survival were young maternal age (18-24 years) and mothers with a recent HIV diagnosis of ≤ 2 years since a positive HIV diagnosis (HR 5.97 CI: 1.20, 29.58) and (HR 6.97 CI: 1.96, 24.76), respectively. Maternal prognostic factors associated with poor infant HIV-free survival were young maternal age (18-24 years) and recent maternal HIV diagnosis of ≤ 2 years since positive HIV diagnosis. The study recommended the development of an intervention package with more rigorous adherence counseling and close monitoring for young mothers, and mothers with recent HIV diagnoses.
  • Inclusiveness of Access Policies to Maternity Care for Migrant Women Across Europe: A Policy Review

    Pařízková, A.; Clausen, J.A.; Balaam, M.C.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Roosalu, T.; Migliorini, L.; Kasper, A. (2023)
    Introduction Despite the interconnectedness of the European Union, there are significant variations in pregnant women’s legal status as migrants and therefore their ability to access maternity care. Limited access to maternity care can lead to higher morbidity and mortality rates in migrant women and their babies. This study aimed to investigate and compare maternal health access policies and the context in which they operate across European countries for women who have migrated and are not considered citizens of the host country. Methods The study adopted a mixed-methods research design exploring policies on migrant women’s access to maternity care across the migration regimes. Data were extracted from legal documents and research reports to construct a new typology to identify the inclusiveness of policies determining access to maternity care for migrant women. Results This study found inconsistency in the categorisation of migrants across countries and significant disparities in access to maternity care for migrant women within and between European countries. A lack of connection between access policies and migration regimes, along with a lack of fit between policies and public support for migration suggests a low level of path dependency and leaves space for policy innovation. Discussion Inequities and inconsistencies in policies across European countries affect non-citizen migrant women’s access to maternity care. These policies act to reproduce structural inequalities which compromise the health of vulnerable women and newborns in reception countries. There is an urgent need to address this inequity, which discriminates against these already marginalised women.
  • “We lost a lot, but something good came out of it too:” Exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental wellbeing of British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities

    Iqbal, Halima; Lockyer, B.; Iqbal, Syka; Dickerson, J. (PLOS ONE, 2023-10-05)
    Background The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions caused major disruption globally, shedding light on the unprecedented strain upon the mental health and wellbeing of individuals around the world. Poor mental health in the pandemic is reported to be greater in women, with mothers being at increased risk. It is unclear whether there are differences in the impact of mental wellbeing on some ethnic groups over others. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, two years on from the first lockdown. Methods Qualitative interviews with women were conducted via telephone using a semi-structured topic guide. The sample included 25 British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities, both English and non-English speaking. Women lived in households that ranged in number and included extended family. Key themes were determined using thematic analysis. Results Results were grouped under three themes. These were (1) Community, cultural and religious contributors to poor mental wellbeing, (2) religious and cultural mediators of mental distress, and (3) perceived positive impact on lifestyle. British Muslim Pakistani women were psychologically distressed by the high rates of virus transmission and deaths in their communities and at the prospect of older members of their extended family developing the virus. The impact of restrictions on fundamental religious and cultural interactions further exacerbated poor mental wellbeing in this population. Religion, community social capital and larger household structures were all effective coping strategies for British Muslim Pakistani women. Positive impacts of the pandemic included becoming closer to family and faith, and increased work/life harmony. Conclusions An exploration of religious and cultural coping mechanisms should be used to inform future national pandemic preparedness plans, as well as effective strategies for building and maintaining social capital. This may increase adherence to physical distancing and other protective behaviours in populations.
  • Venous blood point-of-care testing (POCT) for paramedics in urgent and emergency care: protocol for a single-site feasibility study (POCTPara)

    Lightowler, Bryan; Hodge, A.; Pilbery, R.; Bell, F.; Best, P.; Hird, K.; Walker, A.; Snaith, Beverly (The College of Paramedics, 2023-06-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic placed the UK healthcare system under unprecedented pressure, and recovery will require whole-system investment in innovative, flexible and pragmatic solutions. Positioned at the heart of the healthcare system, ambulance services have been tasked with addressing avoidable hospital conveyance and reducing unnecessary emergency department and hospital attendances through the delivery of care closer to home. Having begun to implement models of care intended to increase ‘see and treat’ opportunities through greater numbers of senior clinical decision makers, emphasis has now been placed upon the use of remote clinical diagnostic tools and near-patient or point-of-care testing (POCT) to aid clinical decision making. In terms of POCT of blood samples obtained from patients in the pre-hospital setting, there is a paucity of evidence beyond its utility for measuring lactate and troponin in acute presentations such as sepsis, trauma and myocardial infarction, although potential exists for the analysis of a much wider panel of analytes beyond these isolated biomarkers. In addition, there is a relative dearth of evidence in respect of the practicalities of using POCT analysers in the pre-hospital setting. This single-site feasibility study aims to understand whether it is practical to use POCT for the analysis of patients’ blood samples in the urgent and emergency care pre-hospital setting, through descriptive data of POCT application and through qualitative focus group interviews of advanced practitioners (specialist paramedics) to inform the feasibility and design of a larger study. The primary outcome measure is focus group data measuring the experiences and perceived self-reported impact by specialist paramedics. Secondary outcome measures are number and type of cartridges used, number of successful and unsuccessful attempts in using the POCT analyser, length of time on scene, specialist paramedic recruitment and retention, number of patients who receive POCT, descriptive data of safe conveyance, patient demographics and presentations where POCT is applied and data quality. The study results will inform the design of a main trial if indicated.
  • Evaluating the role of the diagnostic radiographer in identifying child safeguarding concerns: A knowledge, attitude and practice survey approach

    Beck, Jamie J.W.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Hardy, Maryann L.; Snaith, Beverly (2023-08)
    Introduction: Child safeguarding and the appropriate identification of suspected victims represents a global phenomenon. Diagnostic imaging is acknowledged as a contributory diagnostic service but the role of the radiographer in the identification and escalation process is less well understood. Method: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey was constructed to evaluate knowledge base in the context of the patient–radiographer interaction, the shaping of attitude towards child safeguarding and attitudes held towards their role plus the actual practical experiences of managing child safeguarding concerns. Results: Respondents demonstrated a inconsistent knowledge base with respect to physical, social and radiographic signs and symptoms of child safeguarding concern. A positive attitude towards the role of the radiographer in child safeguarding was demonstrated but one that was shaped more by experience than pre-registration education. Assessment of concerns was chiefly influenced by clinical history and appreciation of aetiology. Practically, radiographers have infrequent involvement with the identification and escalation of concerns. Whilst some statistically significant relationships between responses and demographics did exist, these were either sporadic or argued to be a result of natural variation. Conclusion: Assessment of physical and social signs of child safeguarding concern are argued to be becoming more challenging. Radiological signs continue to be visible to radiographers but with increasing use of other imaging modalities these signs are becoming more varied in nature and are providing new challenges. Radiographers are capable of escalation when required to do so. Implications for practice: To maximise the contribution of the profession, education needs to account for imaging modality worked with, in combination with an understanding of related aetiology. Previously existing concerns with respect to escalating processes are no longer in evidence and radiographers are both willing and able to contribute to that process.
  • Expectations of radiographer reporting roles: A multimethod evaluation across a single imaging network

    House, S.; Snaith, Beverly; Sevens, T. (2023-10)
    Introduction: Prior studies have demonstrated inconsistent development and utilisation of radiographers in the reporting of radiographs, and there is ongoing consideration of the level at which such radiographers should be educated to and operating at. This study aimed to explore and evaluate expectation and utilisation of radiographers currently, or training in, reporting in projection radiography across one integrated care system (ICS). Methods: A multi-method approach was utilised, with document analysis of projection radiography reporting role job descriptions and person specifications and an online survey of managers and clinical leads. A single ICS in the north of England formed the setting for the study. Results: This study demonstrated variation in implementation and utilisation of the role across trusts within the ICS. Inconsistencies in scope, expected underpinning education and role activity were identified. Radiographers autonomously reporting in projection radiography were titled advanced practitioners, however are not expected to achieve national educational standards for such roles and are not empowered to work at this level of practice by their employers. It was acknowledged that staffing pressures hinder appropriate role utilisation and reporting capacity. Conclusion: Inconsistent development and utilisation of radiographers in such roles may hamper collaboration and service delivery across a network. Identifying variation and working towards role standardisation could promote cross-organisational working and improve career progression opportunities. Implications for practice: Scoping the reporting radiographer workforce may assist and guide future imaging service and workforce planning.
  • Software-related challenges in Swedish healthcare through the lens of incident reports: A desktop study

    Rahman Jabin, Md Shafiqur; Pan, D. (Sage Journals, 2023)
    Objective: To identify a subset of software issues occurring in daily Swedish healthcare practice and devise a set of local solutions to overcome the challenges. Methods: A sample of 46 incident reports was collected from one of Sweden's national incident reporting repositories, ranging from June 2019 to December 2021. The reports were first subjected to an algorithm to identify if they were health information technology-related incidents and were analysed using an existing framework, i.e., the Health Information Technology Classification System, to identify the software-related incidents. The incidents associated with software issues were then subjected to thematic analysis, in which themes were extracted and presented under the category assigned by the existing framework used. Results: Of 46 reports, 45 (with one exception) were included using the algorithm. Of 45 incidents, 31 software-related incidents were identified using the classification system. Six types of software issues were identified, including software functionality (n = 10), interface with other software systems or components (n = 10), system configuration (n = 7), interface with devices (n = 2), record migration (n = 1) and increased volume of transactions (n = 1). Each issue was further categorised into different themes; for example, software interface-related problems were grouped into ‘two patients being active in the system simultaneously’ (n = 6) and ‘transfer of patient information’ (n = 4). Conclusions: The study provided some insights into software issues and relevant consequences. A set of local solutions were devised to overcome the present challenges encountered in Swedish healthcare in their daily clinical practice. Systematic identification and characterisation of such software challenges should be a routine part of clinical practice for all major health information technology implementations.
  • Staff experiences of integrating community and secondary care musculoskeletal services: A qualitative investigation

    Alvarado, Natasha; Hargreaves, G.; Storey, K.; Montague, Jane; Broughton, R.; Randell, Rebecca (2023)
    Integrated models of care intend to provide seamless and timely access to health and social care services. This study investigated the integration of musculoskeletal services across community and secondary care boundaries, including the introduction of a single point of access from which patients were triaged. Staff (n = 15) involved in service development and delivery were interviewed about how, why and to what extent integration impacted service delivery. The analysis focused on staff experiences of using an on-line patient self-referral form and co-located clinics to enhance decision-making in triage, and on the provision of educational materials and de-medicalising language in patient consultations to support self-management. Single point of access, including online self-referral, were operationalised during data collection, but co-located clinics were not. Triage staff explained that the volume of referrals and quality of information provided in online self-referrals sometimes constrained decision-making in triage. Secondary care staff discussed concerns that the single point of access might not consistently identify patients with hard to diagnose conditions that require timely surgical intervention. This concern appeared to constrain staff engagement with integration, potentially inhibiting the delivery of co-located clinics. However, triage staff accessed support to inform secondary care referral via alternate modes. Patient circumstances, for example, need for reassurance, necessitated multiple self-management strategies and innovative approaches were developed to provide patients ongoing and professionally led support. Findings emphasise that restructuring services requires engagement from diverse stakeholders. Collaborating with stakeholders to address their concerns about the impact of restructures on well-established pathways may help cultivate this engagement.
  • The impact of hospital command centre on patient flow and data quality: findings from the UK NHS

    Mebrahtu, T.F.; McInerney, C.D.; Benn, J.; McCrorie, C.; Granger, J.; Lawton, T.; Sheikh, N.; Habli, I.; Randell, Rebecca; Johnson, O.A. (2023)
    Background: In the last six years, hospitals in developed countries have been trialling the use of command centres for improving organisational efficiency and patient care. However, the impact of these Command Centres has not been systematically studied in the past. Methods: It is a retrospective population based study. Participants were patients who visited Bradford Royal Infirmary Hospital, accident and emergency (A&E) department, between Jan 01, 2018 and August 31, 2021. Outcomes were patient flow (measured as A&E waiting time, length of stay and clinician seen time)and data quality (measured by the proportion of missing treatment and assessment dates and valid transition between A&E care stages).Interrupted time-series segmented regression and process mining were used for analysis. Results: A&E transition time from patient arrival to assessment by a clinician marginally improved during the intervention period; there was a decrease of 0.9 minutes (95% CI: 0.35 to 1.4), 3 minutes (95% CI: 2.4 to 3.5), 9.7 minutes (95% CI: 8.4 to 11.0) and 3.1 minutes (95% CI: 2.7 to 3.5) during ‘patient flow program’, ‘command centre display roll-in’, ‘command centre activation’ and ‘hospital wide training program’, respectively. However, the transition time from patient treatment until conclusion of consultation showed an increase of 11.5 minutes (95% CI: 9.2 to 13.9), 12.3 minutes (95% CI: 8.7 to 15.9), 53.4 minutes (95% CI: 48.1 to 58.7) and 50.2 minutes (95% CI: 47.5 to 52.9) for the respective four post-intervention periods. Further, length of stay was not significantly impacted; the change was -8.8hrs (95% CI: -17.6 to 0.08), -8.9hrs (95% CI: -18.6 to 0.65), -1.67hrs (95% CI: -10.3 to 6.9) and -0.54hrs (95% CI: -13.9 to 12.8) during the four respective post intervention periods. It was a similar pattern for the waiting and clinician seen times. Data quality as measured by the proportion of missing dates of records was generally poor (treatment date=42.7% and clinician seen date=23.4%) and did not significantly improve during the intervention periods. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that a command centre package that includes process change and software technology does not appear to have consistent positive impact on patient safety and data quality based on the indicators and data we used. Therefore, hospitals considering introducing a Command Centre should not assume there will be benefits in patient flow and data quality.
  • Practices of falls risk assessment and prevention in acute hospital settings: a realist investigation

    Randell, Rebecca; McVey, Lynn; Wright, J.; Zaman, Hadar; Cheong, V-Lin; Woodcock, D.; Healey, F.; Dowding, D.; Gardner, Peter H.; Hardiker, N.R.; et al. (2023)
    Background: Falls are the most common safety incident reported by acute hospitals. NICE recommends multifactorial falls risk assessment and tailored interventions, but implementation is variable. Aim: Determine how and in what contexts multifactorial falls risk assessment and tailored interventions are used in acute NHS hospitals in England. Design: Realist review and multi-site case study. (1) Systematic searches to identify stakeholders’ theories, tested using empirical data from primary studies. Review of falls prevention policies of acute Trusts. (2) Theory testing and refinement through observation, staff interviews (N=50), patient and carer interviews (N=31), and record review (N=60). Setting: Three Trusts, one orthopaedic and one older person ward in each. Results: Seventy-eight studies were used for theory construction and 50 for theory testing. Four theories were explored: (1) Leadership: Wards had falls link practitioners but authority to allocate resources for falls prevention resided with senior nurses. (2) Shared Responsibility: A key falls prevention strategy was patient supervision. This fell to nursing staff, constraining the extent to which responsibility for falls prevention could be shared. (3) Facilitation: Assessments were consistently documented but workload pressures could reduce this to a tick-box exercise. Assessment items varied. While individual patient risk factors were identified, patients were categorised as high or low risk to determine who should receive supervision. (4) Patient Participation: Nursing staff lacked time to explain to patients their falls risks or how to prevent themselves from falling, although other staff could do so. Sensitive communication could prevent patients taking actions that increase their risk of falling. Limitations: Within the realist review, we completed synthesis for only two theories. We could not access patient records before observations, preventing assessment of whether care plans were enacted. Conclusions: (1) Leadership: There should be a clear distinction between senior nurses’ roles and falls link practitioners in relation to falls prevention; (2) Shared Responsibility: Trusts should consider how processes and systems, including the electronic health record, can be revised to better support a multidisciplinary approach, and alternatives to patient supervision should be considered; (3) Facilitation: Trusts should consider how to reduce documentation burden and avoid tick-box responses, and ensure items included in the falls risk assessment tools align with guidance. Falls risk assessment tools and falls care plans should be presented as tools to support practice, rather than something to be audited; (4) Patient Participation: Trusts should consider how they can ensure patients receive individualised information about risks and preventing falls and provide staff with guidance on brief but sensitive ways to talk with patients to reduce the likelihood of actions that increase their risk of falling. Future work: (1) Development and evaluation of interventions to support multidisciplinary teams to undertake, and involve patients in, multifactorial falls risk assessment and selection and delivery of tailored interventions; (2) Mixed method and economic evaluations of patient supervision; (3) Evaluation of engagement support workers, volunteers, and/or carers to support falls prevention. Research should include those with cognitive impairment and patients who do not speak English.
  • Self-efficacy and smoking cessation: A mixed method study among adult smokers in Fiji

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Kengganpanich, M.; Khan, S.; Makutu, L.; Mangum, T. (2023-09)
    Introduction: Smokers usually lack confidence to quit smoking due to previous unsuccessful attempts. This study aimed to assess self-efficacy and quitting smoking among current adult smokers in Suva, Fiji. Methods: This study applied a mixed method design among current adult smokers who attended three randomly selected healthcare centers in Suva, Fiji between 1st May to 31st July 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative information on smoking and smoking cessation, self-efficacy, and stage of smoking. A semi-structured, open-ended questionnaire was used to guide the interviews. Qualitative data was transcribed and thematic analysis was applied to identify the common themes. Results: Four hundred sixty-four smokers participated in the quantitative study, with a mean age of 32.7 (SD=12.1). Only 16.6% of participants were at the stage of “Preparation” and 4.95% of them were at the stage of “Action”, according to the stage of change model. Majority of participants (43.1%) had low self-efficacy to quit smoking. Thirty-five smokers participated in in-depth interviews, with majority (48.57%) in the age group of 18-24. Two themes were identified including “Determinants of self-efficacy” and “Factors affecting quit smoking”. Conclusions: This study showed that adult smokers had low confidence to quit smoking. Developing a tailored intervention using models such as Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and stage of change may help smokers to quit smoking in Fiji.
  • Prevalence and determinants of anxiety among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Europe during Covid-19

    Garatsa, C.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Kostrzynska, E.B.; Nwankwo, B.; Hagan, V.M. (2023-08)
    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic, whose origin was established to be in China, wreaked havoc across the world infecting and killing huge numbers of people. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were affected in many ways especially mentally. The study aims at establishing how anxiety affected HCWs in Europe. Methodology: A systematic review study was carried out based on the Prefrred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) using five databases. The search period was from September 27th to December 7, 2021, and 2326 articles were yielded. Of these, 22 met the inclusion criteria. All the data was inputted onto a data extraction sheet and thematic analysis was carried out on the study outcomes to identify themes. Results: It was established that there was a significant increase in anxiety among HCWs in Europe. It was likewise found that there were non-modifiable (sex and age) and modifiable (nature of work, vulnerability, comorbidities, workload, social factors and geographical location) risk factors for anxiety among the workers. Young female HCWs were found to have a higher prevalence of anxiety compared to male health workers. Anxiety is also associated with other mental health issues as well as suicidal thoughts. Conclusion: There was a marked increase in anxiety among HCWs in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health during disease emergencies should be a priority in terms of policy among healthcare employers. There is a need for further research in this area of mental health to build more evidence that informs policy.
  • "I think taking herbal medicine first can help prevent. If it doesn't work, then can take start taking the medication given by the doctors." Patients' perceptions towards hypertension in Fiji

    Avock, J.J.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Raikanikoda, F. (2023-08)
    Hypertension remains a public health challenge worldwide however, the prevention, detection, treatment and management of this condition are not highly prioritized. Health knowledge has an important impact on individual's health. The ability to actively participate in screening, diagnosis and management of hypertension are influenced by patient's knowledge of hypertension. To understand why hypertension is so difficult to control, it may be of benefit to gain an understanding of the patient's perspective. Hence, the aim of the study is to explore the perceptions of patients on prevention and diagnosis of hypertension in Fiji. The study used a qualitative method approach. The study was conducted at the four purposively selected health centers in the Lautoka/ Yasawa medical subdivision. A purposive sampling was used which included all the patients who attended the SOPD, age more than 18 years and above, diagnosed with hypertension for 6 months or more and attended clinic at one of the 4 selected health centers. Semi-structured open-ended interview guide were used to collect data among patients through in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was used manually to analyze the data using four steps that is immersion in the data, coding the data, creating categories and identifying themes / subthemes. Twenty-five SOPD patients took part in the in-depth interview and the responses were grouped into two themes. The themes emerged included hypertension knowledge and diagnosis of hypertension in a closed family and self. Subthemes derived from the hypertension knowledge were measures of awareness, hypertension aetiology, risk perception, origin of information and concept of prevention. Sub themes derived from the diagnosis of hypertension in a closed family were perception when first diagnosed, hypertension in relation and hypertension impact. Patients' knowledge on etiologies and risk factors of hypertension were generally poor. Majority of the participants learnt about hypertension in hospitals and few over radios and television. Diagnosis in a closed family triggered worrisome, fear and fright on some patients. Majority of the patients have less knowledge about various risk factors of hypertension. Worrisome, fearful, frightful, frustration and sadness were some of the reactions and emotions highlighted by the patients. It is important to design culturally tailored interventions that address the psychological and behavioral needs of the patients. Recommendation to conduct further studies to understand the perception of hypertension among the general public.
  • Evaluating 'living well' with mild-to-moderate dementia: Co-production and validation of the IDEAL My Life Questionnaire

    Clare, L.; Pentecost, C.; Collins, R.; Martyr, A.; Litherland, R.; Morris, R.G.; Quinn, Catherine; Gamble, L.D.; Sabatini, S.; Victor, C. (2023)
    We aimed to co-produce and validate an accessible, evidence-based questionnaire measuring 'living well' with dementia that reflects the experience of people with mild-to-moderate dementia. Nine people with dementia formed a co-production group. An initial series of workshops generated the format of the questionnaire and a longlist of items. Preliminary testing with 53 IDEAL cohort participants yielded a shortlist of items. These were tested with 136 IDEAL cohort participants during a further round of data collection and assessed for reliability and validity. The co-production group contributed to decisions throughout and agreed the final version. An initial list of 230 items was reduced to 41 for initial testing, 12 for full testing, and 10 for the final version. The 10-item version had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and a single factor structure. Analyses showed significant large positive correlations with scores on measures of quality of life, well-being, and satisfaction with life, and expected patterns of association including a significant large negative association with depression scores and no association with cognitive test scores. The co-produced My Life Questionnaire is an accessible and valid measure of 'living well' with dementia suitable for use in a range of contexts.
  • Navigating the COVID-19 pandemic two years on: experiences of carers of people with dementia from the British IDEAL cohort

    Collins, R.; Dawson, E.; Pentecost, C.; Stapley, S.; Quinn, Catherine; Charlwood, C.; Allan, L.; Victor, C.; Clare, L. (2023)
    We explored carers experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in England to identify long-term impacts and implications, and to suggest future support for caregivers. Data were collected during COVID-19 rapid response studies (IDEAL-CDI; INCLUDE) from carers participating in a British longitudinal cohort study (IDEAL). Semi-structured interview data were compared to their accounts from previous interviews conducted during the first 18 months of the pandemic. There was indication of some return to pre-pandemic lifestyles but without appropriate support carers risked reaching crisis point. Evidence points to a need for assessment and management of support needs to ensure well-being and sustainable dementia caregiving.
  • Caring beyond capacity’ during the COVID-19 pandemic: resilience and family carers of people with dementia from the IDEAL cohort

    Stapley, S.; Pentecost, C.; Collins, R.; Quinn, Catherine; Dawson, E.; Thom, J.M.; Clare, L. (2023)
    Family carers of people with dementia have reported increased caring demands during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore seven family carers’ accounts of dementia caregiving one year into the COVID-19 pandemic in England in relation to carer resilience. Themes described the complex challenges of caring during the pandemic, with interviewees burned out and ‘caring beyond capacity’ due to unmet needs within the caring role, therein highlighting the limitations of building individual resilience only. Timely practical support for carers is essential to protect their well-being and to ward against the potential consequences of carer burnout.
  • Provision of outdoor nature-based activity for older people with cognitive impairment: A scoping review from the ENLIVEN project

    Collins, R.; Owen, S.; Opdebeeck, C.; Ledingham, K.; Connell, J.; Quinn, Catherine; Page, S.; Clare, L. (2023-07)
    The health and well-being benefits of outdoor nature-based activity are increasingly recognised, but older people with cognitive impairment face significant barriers to access. The ENLIVEN project aims to promote access by gathering evidence and coproducing guidance for activity providers. As part of this project, we conducted a scoping review to characterise the types of outdoor nature-based activity for older people with dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment for which research evidence is available and the range of outcomes is examined. The protocol is available online. We systematically searched relevant databases from 1st January, 2009, to 20th October, 2022, and screened articles against the following criteria: participants were older people aged 65 and above with cognitive impairment arising from dementia or another health condition. The study described the formal provision of outdoor nature-based activity away from the person’s usual place of residence, and at least one outcome of participation in the activity was evaluated. Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, all focused on people with dementia. In most cases, participants were attending day care or living in residential care, and sample sizes ranged from 4 to 136. Activities fell into three groups: green day care (fifteen articles), equine-assisted interventions (seven articles), and community nature-based activities (six articles). Outcome domains explored were connection with nature, activity engagement, impacts on clinical symptoms, functional ability, physical, psychological and social health,, and quality of life. Outdoor nature-based activity can be offered as an opportunity for meaningful occupation to enrich daily life, as a framework for day care provision, or as an intervention to address clinical needs. The evidence base for green day care is relatively established, but the potential for addressing specific clinical needs remains to be explored. The paucity of evidence regarding community provision, especially for those not attending formal care settings, suggests the need for effective knowledge exchange to stimulate initiatives in this area.

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