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dc.contributor.advisorSilcock, Jonathan
dc.contributor.advisorGraham, Anne M
dc.contributor.authorAlabkal, Rahma M.
dc.date.accessioned2023-12-19T11:48:02Z
dc.date.available2023-12-19T11:48:02Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/19732
dc.description.abstractBackground Of the 464 million patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus globally, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%. Type 2 diabetes contributes to other conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular diseases. Glycaemic haemoglobin control is essential in reducing long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Pharmacist interventions have been documented to have a positive role in diabetes management. In Kuwait, type 2 diabetes prevalence is increasing and found in a young population. Aims To evaluate the influence of the pharmacist-led intervention on diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and HbA1c, and hypertension. In addition, to estimate the 10-years risk of developing cardiovascular events and assess the cost of diabetes-related complications. Method The study was a randomised controlled trial with control and intervention arms conducted at the military hospital in Kuwait. Participants (n=177) were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=88) and control group (n=89), using a 4-block randomisation procedure. The intervention group received face-to-face education and counselling from the pharmacist with a monthly follow-up for six months. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, and secondary measures were hypertension, lipid profiles, medication adherence, diabetes knowledge, 10-year estimated cardiovascular events and cost. QRISK3 and UKPDS-OM2 were used to estimate the risk of CVD events and cost comparison analysis. ii Results Compared with baseline, the mean reduction of HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipid profiles showed significant improvement in the intervention group. Additionally, improvement in medication adherence, diabetes knowledge, 10-years estimated cardiovascular events were reported with the intervention group. Also, the pharmacist-led intervention was cost-saving. Conclusion The study highlighted that adult type 2 diabetes patients who received the pharmacist-led intervention experienced a reduction in adverse clinical outcomes, improved non-clinical outcomes, and assisted in lifestyle modification.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">Creative Commons Licence</a>.eng
dc.subjectPharmaceutical careen_US
dc.subjectType 2 diabetesen_US
dc.subjectHypertensionen_US
dc.subjectCost-effectivenessen_US
dc.subjectPharmacist-led interventionen_US
dc.subjectHealth outcomesen_US
dc.subjectKuwaiten_US
dc.subjectHospital out-patientsen_US
dc.titleInfluence of pharmacist-led intervention on health outcomes and costs in hospital out-patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertensionen_US
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. Faculty of Life Sciencesen_US
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_US
dc.date.awarded2021
refterms.dateFOA2023-12-19T11:48:02Z


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