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dc.contributor.advisorAnderson, Diana
dc.contributor.advisorNajafzadeh, Mojgan
dc.contributor.authorAlhawamdeh, Maysa F.J.
dc.date.accessioned2022-09-20T14:36:49Z
dc.date.available2022-09-20T14:36:49Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/19135
dc.description.abstractLung cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide, with most patients suffering from an advanced unresectable or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The mortality trends are mostly related to patterns of tobacco use, specifically from cigarettes. Tobacco is the basic etiological agent found as a consequence of the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Published data show the use of interferons (IFNs) in the treatment of lung tumours due to their potential in displaying antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, immunoregulatory, and proapoptotic effects. Type1 IFNs have been employed as treatments for many types of cancer, both for haematological cancers and solid tumours. The IFN-γ (naked) functions as an anticancer agent against various forms of cancer. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of IFN-γ liposome (nano) on 42 blood samples from lung cancer patients, compared to the same sample size from healthy individuals. The effectiveness of IFN- γ liposome against oxidative stress was also evaluated in this study. A concentration of 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome was used to treat the lymphocytes in: Comet and micronucleus assays, Comet repair, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were based on a preliminary test for the optimal dose. The lymphocytes from lung cancer patients presented with higher DNA damage levels than those of healthy individuals. IFN-γ liposome was not found to induce any DNA damage in the lymphocytes. Also, it caused a significant reduction in DNA damage in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients in; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays. Furthermore, the 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome significantly reduced the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and appeared to be effective in both groups using the Comet and micronucleus assays. Results from; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays were consistent. The data obtained indicated that IFN-γ in both forms (naked INF-γ and INF-γ nano-liposome) may potentially be effective for the treatment of lung cancer and showed the ability of IFN-γ liposome to reduce the DNA damage more than the naked form. The IFN-γ in both forms has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients by regulating the expression of p53, p21, Bcl-2 at mRNA and protein levels by up-regulating the p53 and p21 to mediate cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in lung cancer patients. The findings of this study are consistent with the view that the naked IFN-γ and liposome could have a significant role in cancer treatment, including lung cancer.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMutah University in Jordanen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">Creative Commons Licence</a>.eng
dc.subjectIFN-γen_US
dc.subjectInterferon gamma, nakeden_US
dc.subjectInterferon gamma, liposomeen_US
dc.subjectDNA damageen_US
dc.subjectGenotoxicen_US
dc.subjectGenoprotectiveen_US
dc.subjectHuman lymphocytesen_US
dc.subjectLung canceren_US
dc.subjectHealthy individualsen_US
dc.subjectCancer treatmenten_US
dc.titleApplying a new technique, the interferon gamma liposomal delivery system to improve drug delivery in the treatment of Lung Canceren_US
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentSchool of Chemistry & Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciencesen_US
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_US
dc.date.awarded2021
refterms.dateFOA2022-09-20T14:36:49Z


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