Exploring the case of adopting Lean to potentially enhance the flow of patients with diabetes in Primary Healthcare Centres in Kuwait. Exploring the case of adopting Lean to potentially enhance the flow of patients with diabetes in Primary Healthcare Centres in Kuwait
SupervisorMohammed, Mohammed A.
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Health Studies
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AbstractSimilar to other healthcare systems worldwide, Kuwait faces challenges of increased demand and cost while trying to operate with constrained resources. There are some data suggesting that Lean methodology, first used by Japanese car manufacturer Toyota, could improve system efficiency or flow by waste elimination, may be useful in addressing some of the challenges found in healthcare. Lean has so far not been used in Kuwaiti primary healthcare centres. This thesis explores the case for using Lean in Kuwait by examines issues around diabetes, as Kuwait rank the six highest in the world. In Kuwait, patients with diabetes are mainly managed in primary healthcare centres. The case for using Lean was explored across five interrelated studies which are summarised below: Study 1 involved a review of the literature which found that Lean tools have been used mostly in hospital settings without any rigorous evaluation and with little or no attention paid to primary healthcare or in developing countries. Study 2 was a systematic documentary review of the challenges facing the healthcare system of Kuwait. In Kuwait, expenditure on healthcare services is expected to double within five years. Life expectancy is increasing, while the percentage of the elderly population is growing, leading to increasing demand of services to treat non-communicable disease such as diabetes. Kuwait still sends many of its patients overseas for treatment. Currently, 10 mega projects worth approximately 2 billion Kuwaiti Dinar are being constructed in Kuwait that will result in a doubling of the bed capacity. However, the average occupancy rate between 2006 to 2015 was 63.6%, which is considered low compared to the average occupancy rate in European Union countries. Study 3 sought the views of Kuwaiti healthcare leaders about Lean and challenges facing the healthcare system of Kuwait. The key findings were: (1) Most leaders agreed that the current healthcare system in Kuwait faces difficult challenges and needs to change its management approach; (2) Lean as a management approach is considered a new concept among leaders of Kuwaiti healthcare organisations; (3) They did not have adequate knowledge regarding Lean but were willing to support any future Lean improvement initiatives. Study 4 explored the knowledge of Healthcare Workers regarding Lean within Kuwait’s primary healthcare centres through a cross-sectional survey in four primary healthcare centres. Only 11% of participants were familiar with Lean. None of the participants were involved or had an ongoing Lean initiative or project but 80% of participants were willing to be involved in future Lean initiatives. Study 5 mapped the flow of patients with type 2 diabetes in primary healthcare centres to identify potential waste and make recommendations for improvement. Patients with type 2 diabetes typically visit their General Practitioner at least every two months for a review appointment. When a blood test is required to monitor blood sugar levels, three more visits are required, involving the blood test, collection of test results by the patient and a review of the results with the general practitioner. Four potential improvements were identified: using point of care testing, the posting of laboratory results to general practitioner computer systems, the introduction of guidelines that standardise the practice for the patient’s visit and permitting the general practitioner to prescribe medication that will last four months. The process map of patients with type 2 diabetes has highlighted waste and improvement suggestions that may reduce workload, enhance patient satisfaction, avoid unnecessary visits, enhance the timeliness of laboratory testing, improve communication between and across departments and minimise the use of resources without undermining the quality of care. These suggestions, if implemented on the national level, could bring tremendous benefits but still need to be rigorously evaluated. The thesis concludes by noting that there is considerable potential in adopting Lean to improve the healthcare services in Kuwait, but further work is required to implement the changes and rigorously evaluate them.
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Organisation, practice and experiences of mouth hygiene in stroke unit care: a mixed methods study.Horne, Maria; McCracken, G.; Walls, A.; Tyrrell, P.J.; Smith, C.J. (2015-03)Aims and objectives To (1) investigate the organisation, provision and practice of oral care in typical UK stroke units; (2) explore stroke survivors', carers' and healthcare professionals' experiences and perceptions about the barriers and facilitators to receiving and undertaking oral care in stroke units. Background Cerebrovascular disease and oral health are major global health concerns. Little is known about the provision, challenges and practice of oral care in the stroke unit setting, and there are currently no evidence-based practice guidelines. Design Cross-sectional survey of 11 stroke units across Greater Manchester and descriptive qualitative study using focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Methods A self-report questionnaire was used to survey 11 stroke units in Greater Manchester. Data were then collected through two focus groups (n = 10) with healthcare professionals and five semi-structured interviews with stroke survivors and carers. Focus group and interview data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework approach. Results Eleven stroke units in Greater Manchester responded to the survey. Stroke survivors and carers identified a lack of oral care practice and enablement by healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals identified a lack of formal training to conduct oral care for stroke patients, inconsistency in the delivery of oral care and no set protocols or use of formal oral assessment tools. Conclusion Oral care post-stroke could be improved by increasing healthcare professionals' awareness, understanding and knowledge of the potential health benefits of oral care post-stroke. Further research is required to develop and evaluate the provision of oral care in stroke care to inform evidence-based education and practice.
Exploratory study of the factors that influence nutrition interventions in the United Arab Emirates’ healthcare systemZairi, Mohamed; Johnson, Craig L.; Algurg, Reem S.E.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014)Non-communicable diseases are on the increase worldwide, causing more than 36 million deaths each year. Evidence of the link between the role of nutrition and reducing non-communicable diseases is predominant in the literature. The factors influencing intervention strategies/policies and activities, however, need attention. AIM: The study aims to examine the factors that influence nutrition interventions within the United Arab Emirates’ healthcare system. METHOD: This research adapts an interdisciplinary approach where a triangulation mixed methodology is applied. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used, through the analysis of ten interviews with policy makers, four case studies and 161 questionnaires. Furthermore, the research framework, which emerged from the literature search and qualitative analysis, is tested and validated by rigorous quantitative analysis using SPSS. The statistical analysis, using factor analysis, MANCOVA and ranking analysis aims to provide solid support for the resulting factors. MAIN FINDING: The study identifies five factors that influence nutrition interventions in a healthcare system, and could enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. The factors are 1) quality and processes, 2) training and use of technology, 3) senior management involvement and responsibility, 4) patient diversity, and 5) multidisciplinary teams. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the emerging literature on management in nutrition interventions and the theory and importance of preventative measures in relation to nutrition. This study provides a roadmap for policy makers to adopt in order to enhance the role of nutrition interventions in healthcare settings.
Cancelled procedures: inequality, inequity and the National Health Service reformsCookson, G.; Jones, S.; McIntosh, Bryan (2013)Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive.; Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive. Copyright A[c] 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; � Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive.