Peripheral Refractive Error and its Association with Myopia Development and Progression. An examination of the role that peripheral retinal defocus may play in the origin and progression of myopia
SupervisorMallen, Edward A.H.
Barrett, Brendan T.
KeywordRelative peripheral refraction
Peripheral refractive error
Peripheral retinal defocus
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Life Sciences
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AbstractPurpose: Currently there are attempts to slow myopia progression by manipulating peripheral refractive error. This study proposed to establish the distribution of peripheral refractive errors in hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic children and to test the hypothesis that relative peripheral hyperopia is a risk factor in the onset and progression of myopia. Methods: Refraction was measured under non-cycloplegic conditions, at 0°, 10° (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal retina) and 30° (temporal and nasal retina), at distance and near. Central spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) was used to classify the eyes as myopic (≤ −0.75 D), emmetropic (−0.75 < SER < +0.75 D) or hyperopic (≥ +0.75 D). Relative peripheral refraction was calculated as the difference between the central (i.e. foveal) and peripheral refractive measurements. At baseline, measurements were taken from 554 children and in a subset of 300 of these same children at the follow-up visit. The time interval between initial and follow-up measurement was 9.71 ± 0.87 months. Results: Results were analysed on 528 participants (10.21 ±0.94 years old) at baseline and 286 longitudinally. At baseline, myopic children (n=61) had relative peripheral hyperopia at all eccentricities at distance and near, except at 10°-superior retina where relative peripheral myopia was observed at near. Hyperopic eyes displayed relative peripheral myopia at all eccentricities, at distance and near. The emmetropes showed a shift from relative peripheral myopia at distance to relative peripheral hyperopia at near at all eccentricities, except at 10°-superior retina, where the relative peripheral myopia was maintained at near. In the longitudinal data analysis, myopes who became more myopic did not show greater relative peripheral hyperopia at baseline compared with myopic sub-groups whose central refraction remained stable. Conclusions: The peripheral refractive profile differences between different refractive groups that are reported in other studies have been confirmed in this study. Relative peripheral hyperopia is not found to be a significant risk factor in the onset or progression of myopia in children.
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