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dc.contributor.authorUgail, Hassan
dc.contributor.authorAl-dahoud, Ahmad
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-20T06:23:36Z
dc.date.accessioned2022-04-28T07:52:41Z
dc.date.available2022-03-20T06:23:36Z
dc.date.available2022-04-28T07:52:41Z
dc.date.issued2019-10
dc.identifier.citationUgail H and Al-dahoud A (2019) A genuine smile is indeed in the eyes - The computer aided non-invasive analysis of the exact weight distribution of human smiles across the face. Advanced Engineering Informatics. 42: 100967.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18938
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractUnderstanding the detailed differences between posed and spontaneous smiles is an important topic with a range of applications such as in human-computer interaction, automatic facial emotion analysis and in awareness systems. During the past decade or so, there have been very promising solutions for accurate automatic recognition and detailed facial emotion analysis. To this end, many methods and techniques have been proposed for distinguishing between spontaneous and posed smiles. Our aim here is to go beyond the present state of the art in this field. Hence, in this work, we are concerned with understanding the exact distribution of a smile – both spontaneous and posed – across the face. To do this, we utilise a lightweight computational framework which we have developed to analyse the dynamics of human facial expressions. We utilise this framework to undertake a detailed study of the smile expression. Based on computing the optical flow across the face – especially across key parts of the face such as the mouth, the cheeks and around the eyes – we are able to accurately map the dynamic weight distribution of the smile expression. To validate our computational model, we utilise two publicly available datasets, namely the CK + dataset in which the subjects express posed smiles and the MUG dataset in which the subjects express genuine smiles. Our results not only confirm what already exists in the literature – i.e. that the spontaneous genuine smile is truly in the eyes – but it also gives further insight into the exact distribution of the smile across the face.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights© 2019 Elsevier. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectGenuine smilesen_US
dc.subjectPosed smilesen_US
dc.subjectSmile analysisen_US
dc.subjectSmile weight distributionen_US
dc.titleA genuine smile is indeed in the eyes – The computer aided non-invasive analysis of the exact weight distribution of human smiles across the faceen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2019-07-19
dc.date.application2019-07-26
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionAccepted manuscripten_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2019.100967
dc.rights.licenseCC-BY-NC-NDen_US
dc.date.updated2022-03-20T06:23:38Z
refterms.dateFOA2022-04-28T07:53:30Z
dc.openaccess.statusopenAccessen_US


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