A genuine smile is indeed in the eyes – The computer aided non-invasive analysis of the exact weight distribution of human smiles across the face
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AbstractUnderstanding the detailed differences between posed and spontaneous smiles is an important topic with a range of applications such as in human-computer interaction, automatic facial emotion analysis and in awareness systems. During the past decade or so, there have been very promising solutions for accurate automatic recognition and detailed facial emotion analysis. To this end, many methods and techniques have been proposed for distinguishing between spontaneous and posed smiles. Our aim here is to go beyond the present state of the art in this field. Hence, in this work, we are concerned with understanding the exact distribution of a smile – both spontaneous and posed – across the face. To do this, we utilise a lightweight computational framework which we have developed to analyse the dynamics of human facial expressions. We utilise this framework to undertake a detailed study of the smile expression. Based on computing the optical flow across the face – especially across key parts of the face such as the mouth, the cheeks and around the eyes – we are able to accurately map the dynamic weight distribution of the smile expression. To validate our computational model, we utilise two publicly available datasets, namely the CK + dataset in which the subjects express posed smiles and the MUG dataset in which the subjects express genuine smiles. Our results not only confirm what already exists in the literature – i.e. that the spontaneous genuine smile is truly in the eyes – but it also gives further insight into the exact distribution of the smile across the face.
CitationUgail H and Al-dahoud A (2019) A genuine smile is indeed in the eyes - The computer aided non-invasive analysis of the exact weight distribution of human smiles across the face. Advanced Engineering Informatics. 42: 100967.
Link to publisher’s versionhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2019.100967
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Is gender encoded in the smile? A computational framework for the analysis of the smile driven dynamic face for gender recognitionUgail, Hassan; Al-dahoud, Ahmad (2018-09)Automatic gender classification has become a topic of great interest to the visual computing research community in recent times. This is due to the fact that computer-based automatic gender recognition has multiple applications including, but not limited to, face perception, age, ethnicity, identity analysis, video surveillance and smart human computer interaction. In this paper, we discuss a machine learning approach for efficient identification of gender purely from the dynamics of a person’s smile. Thus, we show that the complex dynamics of a smile on someone’s face bear much relation to the person’s gender. To do this, we first formulate a computational framework that captures the dynamic characteristics of a smile. Our dynamic framework measures changes in the face during a smile using a set of spatial features on the overall face, the area of the mouth, the geometric flow around prominent parts of the face and a set of intrinsic features based on the dynamic geometry of the face. This enables us to extract 210 distinct dynamic smile parameters which form as the contributing features for machine learning. For machine classification, we have utilised both the Support Vector Machine and the k-Nearest Neighbour algorithms. To verify the accuracy of our approach, we have tested our algorithms on two databases, namely the CK+ and the MUG, consisting of a total of 109 subjects. As a result, using the k-NN algorithm, along with tenfold cross validation, for example, we achieve an accurate gender classification rate of over 85%. Hence, through the methodology we present here, we establish proof of the existence of strong indicators of gender dimorphism, purely in the dynamics of a person’s smile.
Computational analysis of smile weight distribution across the face for accurate distinction between genuine and posed smilesAl-dahoud, Ahmad; Ugail, Hassan (2018)In this paper, we report the results of our recent research into the understanding of the exact distribution of a smile across the face, especially the distinction in the weight distribution of a smile between a genuine and a posed smile. To do this, we have developed a computational framework for the analysis of the dynamic motion of various parts of the face during a facial expression, in particular, for the smile expression. The heart of our dynamic smile analysis framework is the use of optical flow intensity variation across the face during a smile. This can be utilised to efficiently map the dynamic motion of individual regions of the face such as the mouth, cheeks and areas around the eyes. Thus, through our computational framework, we infer the exact distribution of weights of the smile across the face. Further, through the utilisation of two publicly available datasets, namely the CK+ dataset with 83 subjects expressing posed smiles and the MUG dataset with 35 subjects expressing genuine smiles, we show there is a far greater activity or weight distribution around the regions of the eyes in the case of a genuine smile.
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