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dc.contributor.authorInnes, James R.
dc.contributor.authorShriky, Banah
dc.contributor.authorAllan, S.
dc.contributor.authorWang, X.
dc.contributor.authorHebda, Michael J.
dc.contributor.authorCoates, Philip D.
dc.contributor.authorWhiteside, Benjamin R.
dc.contributor.authorBenkreira, Hadj
dc.contributor.authorCaton-Rose, Philip D.
dc.contributor.authorLu, C.H.
dc.contributor.authorWang, Q.
dc.contributor.authorKelly, Adrian L.
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-29T14:58:34Z
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-31T08:40:30Z
dc.date.available2022-03-29T14:58:34Z
dc.date.available2022-03-31T08:40:30Z
dc.date.issued2022-07
dc.identifier.citationInnes JR, Shriky B, Allan S et al (2022) Effect of solid-state shear milled natural rubber particle size on the processing and dynamic vulcanization of recycled waste into thermoplastic vulcanizate. Sustainable Materials and Technologies. 32: e00424.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18836
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractNatural rubber (NR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) waste streams were devulcanized by solid state shear milling (S3M), producing a fine powder that may be more easily reprocessed. Understanding devulcanization and the nature of decrosslinked thermoset materials is of utmost importance for turning these waste steams into functional products. It was found that the devulcanized powders contained significant concentrations of radicals, which may be active in the subsequent revulcanization process. The produced devulcanized powders were converted into recyclable thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) by twin screw extrusion. Reprocessing of these powders into value-added products is an important step in recycling and the use of extrusion allows for high throughput and industrial viability. Herein, we demonstrate that the optimal conditions for reprocessing are dependent upon the particle size of the devulcanized powder. Furthermore, dynamic vulcanization is affected by the nature of these recyclate powders. The successfully prepared TPVs showed similar properties to virgin materials, with a high elongation to failure. Therefore, the conversion of waste rubber into the rubber phase of a TPV shows significant promise in moving towards sustainable products, providing the revulcanization step can be well controlled.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEPSRC and NSFC for their funding of this work through the Joint UK-China Low Carbon Manufacturing Grant, Grant number EP/S018573/1.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttp://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2022.e00424en_US
dc.rights(c) 2022 The Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectNatural rubberen_US
dc.subjectSolid state shear millingen_US
dc.subjectRecycled waste thermoplasticsen_US
dc.titleEffect of solid-state shear milled natural rubber particle size on the processing and dynamic vulcanization of recycled waste into thermoplastic vulcanizateen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2022-03-22
dc.date.application2022-03-26
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.rights.licenseCC-BYen_US
dc.date.updated2022-03-29T14:58:36Z
refterms.dateFOA2022-03-31T08:40:51Z
dc.openaccess.statusopenAccessen_US


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