Intelligent based Packet Scheduling Scheme using Internet Protocol/Multi-Protocol Label Switching (IP/MPLS) Technology for 5G. Design and Investigation of Bandwidth Management Technique for Service-Aware Traffic Engineering using Internet Protocol/Multi-Protocol Label Switching (IP/MPLS) for 5G
AuthorMustapha, Oba Z.
SupervisorHu, Yim Fun
Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.
Internet Protocol (IP)
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
Quality of Service
Packet Processing Algorithm (PPA)
Traffic engineering (TE)
Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Engineering and Informatics
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractMulti-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) makes use of traffic engineering (TE) techniques and a variety of protocols to establish pre-determined highly efficient routes in Wide Area Network (WAN). Unlike IP networks in which routing decision has to be made through header analysis on a hop-by-hop basis, MPLS makes use of a short bit sequence that indicates the forwarding equivalence class (FEC) of a packet and utilises a predefined routing table to handle packets of a specific FEC type. Thus header analysis of packets is not required, resulting in lower latency. In addition, packets of similar characteristics can be routed in a consistent manner. For example, packets carrying real-time information can be routed to low latency paths across the networks. Thus the key success to MPLS is to efficiently control and distribute the bandwidth available between applications across the networks. A lot of research effort on bandwidth management in MPLS networks has already been devoted in the past. However, with the imminent roll out of 5G, MPLS is seen as a key technology for mobile backhaul. To cope with the 5G demands of rich, context aware and multimedia-based user applications, more efficient bandwidth management solutions need to be derived. This thesis focuses on the design of bandwidth management algorithms, more specifically QoS scheduling, in MPLS network for 5G mobile backhaul. The aim is to ensure the reliability and the speed of packet transfer across the network. As 5G is expected to greatly improve the user experience with innovative and high quality services, users’ perceived quality of service (QoS) needs to be taken into account when deriving such bandwidth management solutions. QoS expectation from users are often subjective and vague. Thus this thesis proposes the use of fuzzy logic based solution to provide service aware and user-centric bandwidth management in order to satisfy requirements imposed by the network and users. Unfortunately, the disadvantage of fuzzy logic is scalability since dependable fuzzy rules and membership functions increase when the complexity of being modelled increases. To resolve this issue, this thesis proposes the use of neuro-fuzzy to solicit interpretable IF-THEN rules.The algorithms are implemented and tested through NS2 and Matlab simulations. The performance of the algorithms are evaluated and compared with other conventional algorithms in terms of average throughput, delay, reliability, cost, packet loss ratio, and utilization rate. Simulation results show that the neuro-fuzzy based algorithm perform better than fuzzy and other conventional packet scheduling algorithms using IP and IP over MPLS technologies.
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Design and analysis of energy-efficient media access control protocols in wireless sensor networks. Design and analysis of MAC layer protocols using low duty cycle technique to improve energy efficient and enhance communication performance in wireless sensor networks.Awan, Irfan U.; Ammar, Ibrahim A.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2015-06-17)Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has gained significant importance due to its potential support for a wide range of applications. Most of the WSN applications consist of a large numbers of distributed nodes that work together to achieve common objects. Running a large number of nodes requires an efficient mechanism to bring them all together in order to form a multi-hop wireless network that can accomplish some specific tasks. Even with recent developments made in WSN technology, numbers of important challenges still stand as vulnerabilities for WSNs, including energy waste sources, synchronisation leaks, low network capacity and self-configuration difficulties. However, energy efficiency remains the priority challenging problem due to the scarce energy resources available in sensor nodes. These concerns are managed by medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. MAC protocols designed specifically for WSN have an additional responsibility of managing radio activity to conserve energy in addition to the traditional functions. This thesis presents advanced research work carried out in the context of saving energy whilst achieving the desired network performance. Firstly the thesis contributes by proposing Overlapped Schedules for MAC layer, in which the schedules of the neighbour clusters are overlapped by introducing a small shift time between them, aiming to compensate the synchronisation errors. Secondly, this thesis proposed a modified architecture derived from S-MAC protocol which significantly supports higher traffic levels whilst achieving better energy efficiency. This is achieved by applying a parallel transmission concept on the communicating nodes. As a result, the overall efficiency of the channel contention mechanism increases and leads to higher throughput with lower energy consumption. Finally, this thesis proposed the use of the Adaptive scheme on Border Nodes to increase the power efficiency of the system under light traffic load conditions. The scheme focuses on saving energy by forcing the network border nodes to go off when not needed. These three contributions minimise the contention window period whilst maximising the capacity of the available channel, which as a result increase network performance in terms of energy efficiency, throughput and latency. The proposed system is shown to be backwards compatible and able to satisfy both traditional and advanced applications. The new MAC protocol has been implemented and evaluated using NS-2 simulator, under different traffic loads and varying duty cycle values. Results have shown that the proposed solutions are able to significantly enhance the performance of WSNs by improving the energy efficiency, increasing the system throughput and reducing the communication delay.
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