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dc.contributor.authorAbdul-Al, Mohamed
dc.contributor.authorAmar, A.S.I.
dc.contributor.authorElfergani, Issa T.
dc.contributor.authorLittlehales, R.
dc.contributor.authorOjaroudi Parchin, Naser
dc.contributor.authorAl-Yasir, Yasir I.A.
dc.contributor.authorSee, C.H.
dc.contributor.authorZhou, D.
dc.contributor.authorAbidin, Z.Z.
dc.contributor.authorAlibakhshikenari, M.
dc.contributor.authorZebiri, C.
dc.contributor.authorElmegri, Fauzi
dc.contributor.authorAbusitta, M.M.
dc.contributor.authorUllah, Atta
dc.contributor.authorAbdulssalam, Fathi M.A.
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorMcEwan, Neil J.
dc.contributor.authorNoras, James M.
dc.contributor.authorHodgetts, Russell
dc.contributor.authorAbd-Alhameed, Raed
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-15T12:37:58Z
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-23T12:12:11Z
dc.date.available2022-02-15T12:37:58Z
dc.date.available2022-02-23T12:12:11Z
dc.date.issued2022-02
dc.identifier.citationAbdul-Al M, Amar ASI, Elfergani I et al (2022) Wireless electromagnetic radiation assessment based on the specific absorption rate (SAR): A review case study. Electronics. 11(4): 511.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18751
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractEmploying electromagnetic fields EMFs) in new wireless communication and sensing technologies has substantially increased the level of human exposure to EMF waves. This paper presents a useful insight into the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological media that is defined by the heat generation due to induced currents and dielectric loss. The specific absorption rate (SAR) defines the heating amount in a biological medium that is irradiated by an electromagnetic field value. The paper reviews the radio frequency hazards due to the SAR based on various safety standards and organisations, including a detailed investigation of previously published work in terms of modelling and measurements. It also summarises the most common techniques utilised between 1978 and 2021, in terms of the operational frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and SAR values.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe European Union’s Horizon 2020 innovation programme under grant agreement H2020- MSCA-ITN-2016 SECRET-722424 and the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under grant EP/E022936/1 supported this research. This study is also sponsored by the FCT/MEC through national funds and, where applicable, co-financed by the ERDF under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement under the UID/EEA/50008/2020 project. This study is part of the POSITIONII project, which is funded by the European Commission’s Joint Undertaking under the grant number Ecsel-7831132-Postitio-II-2017-IA. Moreover, this paper is also partially funded by British Council “2019 UK-China-BRI Countries Partnership Initiative” programme, with project titled “Adapting to Industry 4.0 oriented International Education and Research Collaboration”. In addition, this project has received funding from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant 801538.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.rights© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectElectromagnetic fieldsen_US
dc.subjectEMFen_US
dc.subjectSARen_US
dc.subjectRadio frequency hazardsen_US
dc.titleWireless electromagnetic radiation assessment based on the specific absorption rate (SAR): A review case studyen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2022-02-04
dc.date.application2022-02-09
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040511
dc.date.updated2022-02-15T12:38:01Z
refterms.dateFOA2022-02-23T12:12:55Z
dc.openaccess.statusopenAccessen_US


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