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dc.contributor.authorCrane-Kramer, G.M.M.
dc.contributor.authorBuckberry, Jo
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-15T10:54:26Z
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-19T10:46:50Z
dc.date.available2021-02-15T10:54:26Z
dc.date.available2021-02-19T10:46:50Z
dc.date.issued2020-11
dc.identifier.citationCrane-Kramer GMM, Buckberry J (2020) Is the pen mightier than the sword? Exploring urban and rural health in Victorian England and Wales using the Registrar General Reports. In: Betsinger, TK and DeWitte SN (Eds) The Bioarchaeology of Urbanization. London: Springer.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18356
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractIn AD 1836, the General Register Office (GRO) was established to oversee the national system of civil registration in England and Wales, recording all births, deaths and marriages. Additional data regarding population size, division size and patterns of occupation within each division permit urban and rural areas (and those with both urban and rural characteristics, described here as ‘mixed’) to be directly compared to each other. The annual Reports of the Registrar General summarize the collected data, including cause of and age at death, which is of particular value to historical demographers and bioarcheologists, allowing us to investigate demographic patterns in urban and rural districts in the nineteenth century. Overall, this paper aims to highlight how this documentary evidence can supplement osteological and paleopathological data to investigate how urbanization affected the health of past populations. It examines the data contained within the first Registrar General report (for 1837-8), in order to assess patterns of mortality of diverse rural, urban, and mixed populations within England and Wales at a point in time during a period of rapid urbanization. It shows that urban and mixed districts typically had lower life expectancy and different patterns in cause of death compared to rural areas. The paper briefly compares how the documentary data differs from information regarding health from skeletal populations, focusing on the city of London, highlighting that certain age groups (the very young and very old) are typically underrepresented in archeological assemblages and reminding us that, while the paleopathological record offers much in terms of chronic health, evidence of acute disease and importantly cause of death can rarely be ascertained from skeletal remains.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was funded by the Royal Society of London (Grant Reference IES\R1\180138) and supported by the University of Bradford and SUNY Plattsburgh.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringer
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53417-2_16en_US
dc.rights© 2020 Springer. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53417-2_16.en_US
dc.subjectNineteenth centuryen_US
dc.subjectIndustrial revolutionen_US
dc.subjectMortalityen_US
dc.subjectCause of deathen_US
dc.subjectLife expectancyen_US
dc.titleIs the pen mightier than the sword? Exploring urban and rural health in Victorian England and Wales using the Registrar General Reportsen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.application2020-11-06
dc.typeBook chapteren_US
dc.date.EndofEmbargo2021-11-07
dc.type.versionAccepted manuscripten_US
dc.description.publicnotesFull text of this book chapter will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 7 Nov 2021.
dc.date.updated2021-02-15T10:54:28Z
refterms.dateFOA2021-02-19T10:48:29Z
dc.openaccess.statusGreenen_US


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