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dc.contributor.advisorMohamed, Mostafa H.A.
dc.contributor.authorAli, Hatim F.A.
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-15T11:46:09Z
dc.date.available2021-01-15T11:46:09Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18313
dc.description.abstractNatural soils in work-sites are sometimes detrimental to the construction of engineering projects. Problematic soils such as soft and expansive soils are a real source of concern to the long-term stability of structures if care is not taken. Expansive soils could generate immense distress due to their volume change in response to a slight change in their water content. On the other hand, soft soils are characterised by their low shear strength and poor workability. In earthwork, replacing these soils is sometimes economically and sustainably unjustifiable in particular if they can be stabilised to improve their behaviour. Several techniques have evolved to enable construction on problematic soils such as reinforcement using fibre and planar layers and piled reinforced embankments. Chemical treatment using, e.g. lime and/or cement is an alternative method to seize the volume change of swelling clays. The use of lime as a binding agent is becoming a popular method due to its abundant availability and cost-effectiveness. When mixed with swelling clays, lime enhances the mechanical properties, workability and reduces sensitivity to absorption and release of water. There is a consensus in the literature about the primary mechanisms, namely cation exchange, flocculation and pozzolanic reaction, which cause the changes in the soil characteristics after adding lime in the presence of water. The dispute is about whether these mechanisms occur in a sequential or synchronous manner. More precisely, the controversy concerns the formation of cementitious compounds in the pozzolanic reaction, whether it starts directly or after the cation exchange and flocculation are completed. The current study aims to monitor the signs of the formation of such compounds using a geotechnical approach. In this context, the effect of delayed compaction, lime content, mineralogy composition, curing time and environmental temperature on the properties of lime-treated clays were investigated. The compaction, swelling and permeability, and unconfind compression strength tests were chosen to evaluate such effect. In general, the results of the geotechnical approach have been characterised by their scattering. The sources of this dispersion are numerous and include sampling methods, pulverisation degree, mixing times and delay of compaction process, a pre-test temperature and humidity, differences in dry unit weight values, and testing methods. Therefore, in the current study, several precautions have been set to reduce the scattering in the results of such tests so that they can be used efficiently to monitor the evolution in the properties that are directly related to the formation and development of cementitious compounds. Four clays with different mineralogy compositions, covering a wide range of liquid limits, were chosen. The mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of such clays that had been treated by various concentrations of lime up to 25% at two ambient temperatures of 20 and 40oC were monitored for various curing times. The results indicated that the timing of the onset of changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties that are related to the formation of cementitious compounds depends on the mineralogy composition of treated clay and ambient temperature. Moreover, at a given temperature, the continuity of such changes in the characteristics of a given lime-treated clay depends on the lime availability.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">Creative Commons Licence</a>.eng
dc.subjectExpansive clayen_US
dc.subjectLime stabilisationen_US
dc.subjectCompaction delayen_US
dc.subjectAmbient temperatureen_US
dc.subjectSwelling pressureen_US
dc.subjectUnconfined compressive strengthen_US
dc.subjectPermeability coefficienten_US
dc.titleAssessment of lime-treated clays under different environmental conditionsen_US
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentFaculty of Engineering and Informaticsen_US
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_US
dc.date.awarded2019
refterms.dateFOA2021-01-15T11:46:28Z


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