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dc.contributor.authorOkoro, B.U.
dc.contributor.authorSharifi, S.
dc.contributor.authorJesson, M.
dc.contributor.authorBridgeman, John
dc.contributor.authorMoruzzi, R.
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-10T16:41:59Z
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-12T08:38:38Z
dc.date.available2021-01-10T16:41:59Z
dc.date.available2021-01-12T08:38:38Z
dc.date.issued2021-01-01
dc.identifier.citationOkoro BU, Sharifi S, Jesson M et al (2021) Characterisation and Performance of three Kenaf coagulation products under different operating conditions. Water Research. 188: 116517en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/18295
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractThe Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.1, established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, targets universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. An essential factor in achieving this goal is the harnessing of “green” coagulants – naturally occurring, environmentally friendly materials which are effective coagulants for use in water treatment, with good availability in developing countries, inherent renewable properties and ease of biodegradation. In order to gain from these benefits, it is essential to fully understand how such coagulants may best be utilised, particularly concerning their practical application in developing countries. In this study, three different plant-based coagulation products (PCPs), namely Hexane (HxKP), saline (StKP) and crude (CrKP) extracts of Kenaf plant seed (Hibiscus cannabinus, a species of the Hibiscus plant), were applied to high (HTW), medium (MTW) and low (LTW) turbidity water in order to determine their performance and coagulation ability. The ability of the three Kenaf coagulant products (KCPs) to remove hydrophobic fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) was measured. The impact of KCPs on the treated water organic matter content (a known disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor) was examined using known surrogates of natural organic matter (NOM) i.e. the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 (UV254) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254). Results obtained quantify the implications of using these coagulants during the water disinfection process. A parametric study, measuring the effect of different operating parameters, such as untreated water turbidity, pH, dosages, retention time, and KCP storage time, was completed. Turbidity removal performance for HxKP and StKP was very good with > 90% removal recorded for HTW and MTW, respectively, at pH seven within 2 hours retention time. Images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a high likelihood of the coagulation mechanism of KCPs to be adsorption-interparticle bridging brought about by their flake-like structures and surfaces charges. Varying pH had no measurable influence on the coagulation performance of the KCPs. Comparing their efficiency with Moringa Oleifera (MO, a previously researched PCP) and alum showed that HxKP had a negligibly different particle removal as MO. StKP turbidity removal performance was below HxKP by 1% for HTW and LTW and 2% for MTW but performed higher than the CrKP by 5% and 7% in HTW and MTW, respectively. The optimum dosage of HxKP and StKP reduced DBP surrogate values, indicating that its precursor is also minimized, although a slight shift from this optimum dosage showed a significant rise in their concentration thus signifying a potential increase in DBPs during disinfection.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116517en_US
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectTurbidityen_US
dc.subjectCoagulation-flocculationen_US
dc.subjectMolecular interactionen_US
dc.subjectPlant-based coagulantsen_US
dc.subjectWater treatmenten_US
dc.titleCharacterisation and Performance of three Kenaf coagulation products under different operating conditionsen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2020-10-11
dc.date.application2020-10-12
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.date.EndofEmbargo2021-10-13
dc.type.versionAccepted manuscripten_US
dc.description.publicnotesThe full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 13 Oct 2021.en_US
dc.date.updated2021-01-10T16:42:08Z
refterms.dateFOA2021-01-12T08:39:00Z
dc.openaccess.statusGreenen_US


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