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dc.contributor.authorMaji, S.
dc.contributor.authorHanmaiahgari, P.R.
dc.contributor.authorBalachandar, R.
dc.contributor.authorPu, Jaan H.
dc.contributor.authorRicardo, A.M.
dc.contributor.authorFerreira, R.M.L.
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-07T20:25:24Z
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-15T09:09:39Z
dc.date.available2020-05-07T20:25:24Z
dc.date.available2020-05-15T09:09:39Z
dc.date.issued2020-04
dc.identifier.citationMaji S, Hanmaiahgari PR, Balachandar R et al (2020) A review on hydrodynamics of free surface flows in emergent vegetated channels. Water. 12(4): 1218.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/17820
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractThis review paper addresses the structure of the mean flow and key turbulence quantities in free-surface flows with emergent vegetation. Emergent vegetation in open channel flow affects turbulence, flow patterns, flow resistance, sediment transport, and morphological changes. The last 15 years have witnessed significant advances in field, laboratory, and numerical investigations of turbulent flows within reaches of different types of emergent vegetation, such as rigid stems, flexible stems, with foliage or without foliage, and combinations of these. The influence of stem diameter, volume fraction, frontal area of stems, staggered and non-staggered arrangements of stems, and arrangement of stems in patches on mean flow and turbulence has been quantified in different research contexts using different instrumentation and numerical strategies. In this paper, a summary of key findings on emergent vegetation flows is offered, with particular emphasis on: (1) vertical structure of flow field, (2) velocity distribution, 2nd order moments, and distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in horizontal plane, (3) horizontal structures which includes wake and shear flows and, (4) drag effect of emergent vegetation on the flow. It can be concluded that the drag coefficient of an emergent vegetation patch is proportional to the solid volume fraction and average drag of an individual vegetation stem is a linear function of the stem Reynolds number. The distribution of TKE in a horizontal plane demonstrates that the production of TKE is mostly associated with vortex shedding from individual stems. Production and dissipation of TKE are not in equilibrium, resulting in strong fluxes of TKE directed outward the near wake of each stem. In addition to Kelvin–Helmholtz and von Kármán vortices, the ejections and sweeps have profound influence on sediment dynamics in the emergent vegetated flows.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttps://doi.org/10.3390/w12041218en_US
dc.rights© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectTurbulenceen_US
dc.subjectEmergent vegetationen_US
dc.subjectFlexible vegetationen_US
dc.subjectRigid vegetationen_US
dc.subjectCoherent structuresen_US
dc.subjectShear layeren_US
dc.titleA review on hydrodynamics of free surface flows in emergent vegetated channelsen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2020-04-16
dc.date.application2020-04-24
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.date.updated2020-05-07T19:25:28Z
refterms.dateFOA2020-05-15T09:10:17Z


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