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dc.contributor.advisorBatt, Catherine M.
dc.contributor.advisorBond, Julie M.
dc.contributor.authorGriffin, Greggory A.
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-15T16:27:23Z
dc.date.available2019-11-15T16:27:23Z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/17453
dc.description.abstractUnderstanding fuel use is important in researching ancient communities. This project developed methods to identify archaeological fuel from midden, hearth, and ash samples using comparison to modern analogues. Modern analogue fuels were ashed at 2000C, 4000C, and 9000C then analysed with a suite of methods, the results were then used to inform the development of an approach for the identification of archaeological fuels. These methods were tested using samples from Ness of Brodgar, Knowe of Swandro, and Smerquoy/Muckquoy in Orkney. Magnetic susceptibility, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, pH and Munsell colour assignment were chosen based upon previous archaeological, biofuel, and soil pollution research. The methodologies were refined with the analysis of ash from fuels including peat, seaweed, driftwood, willow, hazel, heather, grasses, cow dung, sheep dung, and bone. Modern analogue fuels at increasing temperatures showed an intensification in magnetism and alkalinity, and an alteration to mineral components during the chemical reaction of combustion that is indicative of fuel type and temperature. Principal components analysis confirmed matches between archaeological samples and modern ash, indicating a strong relationship between peat fuels and the archaeological samples. A correlation is also demonstrated between some of the archaeological samples and sheep dung, driftwood, willow, and animal bone. It is evident that each archaeological site has unique patterns of both fuel type and temperature. This shows that in the absence of abundant traditional wood fuel resources, the occupants of these sites used a combination of alternative fuels.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Bradforden_US
dc.rights<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">Creative Commons Licence</a>.eng
dc.subjectOrkneyen_US
dc.subjectMagneticen_US
dc.subjectAshingen_US
dc.subjectNeolithicen_US
dc.subjectPictishen_US
dc.subjectResourcesen_US
dc.subjectExperimentalen_US
dc.subjectSEM-EDXen_US
dc.titleAshes to Ashes: Identifying archaeological fuelsen_US
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentFaculty of Life Sciencesen_US
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_US
dc.date.awarded2018
refterms.dateFOA2019-11-15T16:27:23Z


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