Investigation of Indoor Propagation Algorithms for Localization Purposes: Simulation and Measurements of Indoor Propagation Algorithms for Localization Applications using Wall Correction Factors, Local Mean Power Estimation and Ray Tracing Validations
AuthorObeidat, Huthaifa A.N.
SupervisorAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.
Noras, James M.
Jones, Steven M.R.
KeywordIndoor path loss model
Received signal strength
Local mean power
Wireless Local Area Network
Line of Sight
Time of Arrival
Angle of Arrival
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Engineering and Informatics
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe objective of this work is to enhance the awareness of the indoor propagation behaviour, by a set of investigations including simulations and measurements. These investigations include indoor propagation behaviour, local mean power estimation, proposing new indoor path loss model and introducing a case study on 60 GHz propagation in indoor environments using ray tracing and measurements. A summary of propagation mechanisms and manifestations in the indoor environment is presented. This comprises the indoor localization techniques using channel parameters in terms of angle of arrival (AOA), time of arrival (TOA) and received signal strength (RSS). Different models of path loss, shadowing and fast fading mechanisms are explored. The concept of MIMO channels is studied using many types of deterministic channel modelling such as Finite Difference Time Domain, Ray tracing and Dominant path model. A comprehensive study on estimating local average of the received signal strength (RSS) for indoor multipath propagation is conducted. The effect of the required number of the RSS data and their Euclidian distances between the neighbours samples are investigated over 1D, 2D and 3D configurations. It was found that the effect of fast fading was reduced sufficiently using 2D horizontal’s arrangement with larger spacing configuration. A modified indoor path loss prediction model is presented namely effective wall loss model (EWLM). The modified model with wall correction factors is compared to other indoor path loss prediction models using simulation data (for 2.4, 5, 28, 60 and 73.5 GHz) and real-time measurements (for 2.4 and 5 GHz). Different operating frequencies and antenna polarizations are considered to verify the observations. In the simulation part, EWLM shows the best performance among other models. Similar observations were recorded from the experimental results. Finally, a detailed study on indoor propagation environment at 60 GHz is conducted. The study is supported by Line of Sight (LoS) and Non-LoS measurements data. The results were compared to the simulated ones using Wireless-InSite ray tracing software. Several experiments have confirmed the reliability of the modelling process based on adjusted material properties values from measurements.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Localized Quality of Service Routing Algorithms for Communication Networks. The Development and Performance Evaluation of Some New Localized Approaches to Providing Quality of Service Routing in Flat and Hierarchical Topologies for Computer Networks.Woodward, Mike E.; Alzahrani, Ahmed S. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-03-10)Quality of Service (QoS) routing considered as one of the major components of the QoS framework in communication networks. The concept of QoS routing has emerged from the fact that routers direct traffic from source to destination, depending on data types, network constraints and requirements to achieve network performance efficiency. It has been introduced to administer, monitor and improve the performance of computer networks. Many QoS routing algorithms are used to maximize network performance by balancing traffic distributed over multiple paths. Its major components include bandwidth, delay, jitter, cost, and loss probability in order to measure the end users¿ requirements, optimize network resource usage and balance traffic load. The majority of existing QoS algorithms require the maintenance of the global network state information and use it to make routing decisions. The global QoS network state needs to be exchanged periodically among routers since the efficiency of a routing algorithm depends on the accuracy of link-state information. However, most of QoS routing algorithms suffer from scalability problems, because of the high communication overhead and the high computation effort associated with marinating and distributing the global state information to each node in the network.The goal of this thesis is to contribute to enhancing the scalability of QoS routing algorithms. Motivated by this, the thesis is focused on localized QoS routing that is proposed to achieve QoS guarantees and overcome the problems of using global network state information such as high communication overhead caused by frequent state information updates, inaccuracy of link-state information for large QoS state update intervals and the route oscillating due to the view of state information. Using such an approach, the source node makes its own routing decisions based on the information that is local to each node in the path. Localized QoS routing does not need the global network state to be exchanged among network nodes because it infers the network state and avoids all the problems associated with it, like high communication and processing overheads and oscillating behaviour. In localized QoS routing each source node is required to first determine a set of candidate paths to each possible destination. In this thesis we have developed localized QoS routing algorithms that select a path based on its quality to satisfy the connection requirements. In the first part of the thesis a localized routing algorithm has been developed that relies on the average residual bandwidth that each path can support to make routing decisions. In the second part of the thesis, we have developed a localized delay-based QoS routing (DBR) algorithm which relies on a delay constraint that each path satisfies to make routing decisions. We also modify credit-based routing (CBR) so that this uses delay instead of bandwidth. Finally, we have developed a localized QoS routing algorithm for routing in two levels of a hierarchal network and this relies on residual bandwidth to make routing decisions in a hierarchical network like the internet. We have compared the performance of the proposed localized routing algorithms with other localized and global QoS routing algorithms under different ranges of workloads, system parameters and network topologies. Simulation results have indicated that the proposed algorithms indeed outperform algorithms that use the basics of schemes that currently operate on the internet, even for a small update interval of link state. The proposed algorithms have also reduced the routing overhead significantly and utilize network resources efficiently.
New quality of service routing algorithms based on local state information. The development and performance evaluation of new bandwidth-constrained and delay-constrained quality of service routing algorithms based on localized routing strategies.Woodward, Mike E.; Aldosari, Fahd M. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-04-16)The exponential growth of Internet applications has created new challenges for the control and administration of large-scale networks, which consist of heterogeneous elements under dynamically changing traffic conditions. These emerging applications need guaranteed service levels, beyond those supported by best-effort networks, to deliver the intended services to the end user. Several models have been proposed for a Quality of Service (QoS) framework that can provide the means to transport these services. It is desirable to find efficient routing strategies that can meet the strict routing requirements of these applications. QoS routing is considered as one of the major components of the QoS framework in communication networks. In QoS routing, paths are selected based upon the knowledge of resource availability at network nodes and the QoS requirements of traffic. Several QoS routing schemes have been proposed that differ in the way they gather information about the network state and the way they select paths based on this information. The biggest downside of current QoS routing schemes is the frequent maintenance and distribution of global state information across the network, which imposes huge communication and processing overheads. Consequently, scalability is a major issue in designing efficient QoS routing algorithms, due to the high costs of the associated overheads. Moreover, inaccuracy and staleness of global state information is another problem that is caused by relatively long update intervals, which can significantly deteriorate routing performance. Localized QoS routing, where source nodes take routing decisions based solely on statistics collected locally, was proposed relatively recently as a viable alternative to global QoS routing. It has shown promising results in achieving good routing performance, while at the same time eliminating many scalability related problems. In localized QoS routing each source¿destination pair needs to determine a set of candidate paths from which a path will be selected to route incoming flows. The goal of this thesis is to enhance the scalability of QoS routing by investigating and developing new models and algorithms based on the localized QoS routing approach. For this thesis, we have extensively studied the localized QoS routing approach and demonstrated that it can achieve a higher routing performance with lower overheads than global QoS routing schemes. Existing localized routing algorithms, Proportional Sticky Routing (PSR) and Credit-Based Routing (CBR), use the blocking probability of candidate paths as the criterion for selecting routing paths based on either flow proportions or a crediting mechanism, respectively. Routing based on the blocking probability of candidate paths may not always reflect the most accurate state of the network. This has motivated the search for alternative localized routing algorithms and to this end we have made the following contributions. First, three localized bandwidth-constrained QoS routing algorithms have been proposed, two are based on a source routing strategy and the third is based on a distributed routing strategy. All algorithms utilize the quality of links rather than the quality of paths in order to make routing decisions. Second, a dynamic precautionary mechanism was used with the proposed algorithms to prevent candidate paths from reaching critical quality levels. Third, a localized delay-constrained QoS routing algorithm was proposed to provide routing with an end-to-end delay guarantee. We compared the performance of the proposed localized QoS routing algorithms with other localized and global QoS routing algorithms under different network topologies and different traffic conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms outperform the other algorithms in terms of routing performance, resource balancing and have superior computational complexity and scalability features.
Some new localized quality of service models and algorithms for communication networks. The development and evaluation of new localized quality of service routing algorithms and path selection methods for both flat and hierarchical communication networks.Not named; Mustafa, Elmabrook B.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-05-07)The Quality of Service (QoS) routing approach is gaining an increasing interest in the Internet community due to the new emerging Internet applications such as real-time multimedia applications. These applications require better levels of quality of services than those supported by best effort networks. Therefore providing such services is crucial to many real time and multimedia applications which have strict quality of service requirements regarding bandwidth and timeliness of delivery. QoS routing is a major component in any QoS architecture and thus has been studied extensively in the literature. Scalability is considered one of the major issues in designing efficient QoS routing algorithms due to the high cost of QoS routing both in terms of computational effort and communication overhead. Localized quality of service routing is a promising approach to overcome the scalability problem of the conventional quality of service routing approach. The localized quality of service approach eliminates the communication overhead because it does not need the global network state information. The main aim of this thesis is to contribute towards the localised routing area by proposing and developing some new models and algorithms. Toward this goal we make the following major contributions. First, a scalable and efficient QoS routing algorithm based on a localised approach to QoS routing has been developed and evaluated. Second, we have developed a path selection technique that can be used with existing localized QoS routing algorithms to enhance their scalability and performance. Third, a scalable and efficient hierarchical QoS routing algorithm based on a localised approach to QoS routing has been developed and evaluated.