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dc.contributor.authorVandelannoote, K.
dc.contributor.authorMeehan, Conor J.
dc.contributor.authorEddyani, M.
dc.contributor.authorAffolabi, D.
dc.contributor.authorPhanzu, D.M.
dc.contributor.authorEyangoh, S.
dc.contributor.authorJordaens, K.
dc.contributor.authorPortaels, F.
dc.contributor.authorMangas, K.
dc.contributor.authorSeemann, T.
dc.contributor.authorMarsollier, L.
dc.contributor.authorMarion, E.
dc.contributor.authorChauty, A.
dc.contributor.authorLandier, J.
dc.contributor.authorFontanet, A.
dc.contributor.authorLeirs, H.
dc.contributor.authorStinear, T.P.
dc.contributor.authorde Jong, B.C.
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-24T10:44:41Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-15T10:04:18Z
dc.date.available2019-09-24T10:44:41Z
dc.date.available2019-10-15T10:04:18Z
dc.date.issued2017-03
dc.identifier.citationVandelannoote K, Meehan CJ, Eddyani M, et al (2017) Multiple Introductions and Recent Spread of the Emerging Human Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans across Africa. Genome Biology and Evolution. 9(3):414-426.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/17302
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractBuruli ulcer (BU) is an insidious neglected tropical disease. Cases are reported around the world but the rural regions of West and Central Africa are most affected. How BU is transmitted and spreads has remained a mystery, even though the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, has been known for more than 70 years. Here, using the tools of population genomics, we reconstruct the evolutionaryhistoryofM. ulceransbycomparing165isolatesspanning48yearsandrepresenting11endemiccountriesacrossAfrica. The genetic diversity of African M. ulcerans was found to be restricted due to the bacterium’s slow substitution rate coupled with its relatively recent origin. We identified two specific M. ulcerans lineages within the African continent, and inferred that M. ulcerans lineage Mu_A1 existed in Africa for several hundreds of years, unlike lineage Mu_A2, which was introduced much more recently, approximately during the 19th century. Additionally, we observed that specific M. ulcerans epidemic Mu_A1 clones were introduced during the same time period in the three hydrological basins that were well covered in our panel. The estimated time span of the introduction events coincides with the Neo-imperialism period, during which time the European colonial powers divided the African continent among themselves. Using this temporal association, and in the absence of a known BU reservoir or—vector on the continent, we postulate that the so-called "Scramble for Africa" played a significant role in the spread of the disease across the continent.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipK.V. was supported by a PhD-grant of the Flemish Interuniversity Council—University Development Cooperation (Belgium). B.d.J. and C.M. were supported by the European Research Council-INTERRUPTB starting grant (no. 311725). T.P.S. was supported by a fellowship from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (1105525). Funding for this work was provided by the Department of Economy, Science and Innovation of the Flemish Government, the Stop Buruli Consortium supported by the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (Belgium) (FWO grant no. G.0321.07N). The computational resources used in this work were provided by the HPC core facility CalcUA and VSC (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the University of Antwerp, the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government—department EWI. Aspects of the research in Cameroon and Benin were funded by the Raoul Follereau Fondation France.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttps://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evx003en_US
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
dc.subjectBacterial pathogen transmissionen_US
dc.subjectMicrobial population genomicsen_US
dc.subjectMolecular evolutionen_US
dc.subjectPhylogeographyen_US
dc.titleMultiple Introductions and Recent Spread of the Emerging Human Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans across Africaen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2017-01-18
dc.date.application2017-01-30
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.date.updated2019-09-24T09:44:42Z
refterms.dateFOA2019-10-15T10:04:47Z


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