DISH Everywhere: Study of the Pathogenesis of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and of its Prevalence in England and Catalonia from the Roman to the Post-Medieval Time Period
AuthorCastells Navarro, Laura
KeywordDiffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)
Early medieval period
Late medieval period
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Life Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractDiffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a spondyloarthropathy traditionally defined as having spinal and extra-spinal manifestations. However its diagnostic criteria only allow the identification of advanced DISH and there is little consensus regarding the extra-spinal enthesopathies. In this project, individuals with DISH from the WM Bass Donated Skeletal Collection were analysed to investigate the pathogenesis of DISH and archaeological English and Catalan samples (3rd–18th century AD) were studied to investigate how diet might have influenced the development of DISH. From the individuals from the Bass Collection, isolated vertical lesions representing the early stages of DISH (‘early DISH’) were identified. Both sample sets showed that the presence of extra-spinal manifestations varies significantly between individuals and that discarthrosis and DISH can co-exist in the same individual. In all archaeological samples, the prevalence of DISH was significantly higher in males and older individuals showed a higher prevalence of DISH. In both regions, the prevalence of DISH was the lowest in the Roman samples, the highest in the early medieval ones and intermediate in the late medieval samples. While when using documentary resources and archaeological data, it was hypothesised that the prevalence of DISH in the English and Catalan samples might have been different, the results show no significant differences even if English samples tend to show higher prevalence of DISH than the Catalan samples. This possibly suggests that the development of DISH depends on a combination of dietary habits and, possibly, genetic predisposition might influence the development of DISH. The individuals from the Bass Collection showed high prevalence of metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. In contrast, no association was found between DISH and rich-diet associated conditions (e.g. carious lesions and gout) or deficiency-related conditions (e.g. scurvy, healed rickets).
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles; a multidisciplinary approach. Archaeological research into long term settlements and thier associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods.Heron, Carl P.; Brown, L.D.; Dockrill, Stephen J. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2014-05-07)The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ¿client¿ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.
Developing a professional identity: a grounded theory study of the experiences of pharmacy students undertaking an early period of pre-registration trainingLucas, Beverley J.; Silcock, Jonathan; Quinn, Gemma L. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)Introduction: Trainee pharmacists are required to undertake a work-based pre-registration training placement (PRTP) in order to qualify. Literature exploring how this placement influences the development of students’ professionalism is sparse, however it is acknowledged that placements offer learning that can not be replicated in an academic environment. Following recent recommendations for the PRTP to be split into two six-month placements, the “sandwich” Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) programme at the University of Bradford offers a unique opportunity to study the impact of an early PRTP. This project aimed to understand the experiences of “sandwich” students during their early PRTP and generate a theory explaining how professionalism develops during this time. Methods: A constructivist grounded theory approach was taken. Fourteen students who had recently completed their early PRTP were interviewed using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. A constant comparative approach to analysis was taken. Findings: The process developing a professional identity emerged as the core category. This consisted of four interlinking stages; reflection, selection of attributes, professional socialisation and perception of role. Developing a professional identity occurred under the conditions of realising the reality of the profession, developing practical knowledge and skills and learning from mentors. The consequence of developing a professional identity was that participants felt they were now a trainee professional. Discussion and conclusion: The theory demonstrates that developing a professional identity was the main process that occurred whilst MPharm students were on their early PRTP. Regulatory, funding and educational organisations should consider this when reviewing pharmacists’ training and students’ approach on return to university.
Computation of electromagnetic fields in assemblages of biological cells using a modified finite difference time domain scheme. Computational electromagnetic methods using quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, modified Berenger absorbing boundary and Floquet periodic boundary conditions to investigate the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems.Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)There is an increasing need for accurate models describing the electrical behaviour of individual biological cells exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this area of solving linear problem, the most frequently used technique for computing the EM field is the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. When modelling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, for example biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating the Hodgkin and Huxley membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2450MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems. Moreover, the nonlinear response of biological cell exposed to a 0.9GHz signal was discussed on observing the second harmonic at 1.8GHz. In this, an electrical circuit model has been proposed to calibrate the performance of nonlinear RF energy conversion inside a high quality factor resonant cavity with known nonlinear device. Meanwhile, the first and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to the loading of the cavity with the lossy material will also be demonstrated. The results from proposed mathematical model, give good indication of the input power required to detect the weakly effects of the second harmonic signal prior to perform the measurement. Hence, this proposed mathematical model will assist to determine how sensitivity of the second harmonic signal can be detected by placing the required specific input power.