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dc.contributor.advisorOttaway, Barbara
dc.contributor.advisorPollard, A. Mark
dc.contributor.authorGale, David
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-03T09:55:40Z
dc.date.available2019-07-03T09:55:40Z
dc.date.issued1995
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/17157
dc.description.abstractThis is a study of cobblestone tools from metalliferous mine sites in England and Wales dated to the Bronze Age which were most probably used to extract copper ore. The site assemblages studied are from the Great Orme, Copa Hill in Cwmystwyth, Nantyreira, Parys Mountain and Alderley Edge. The majority of the tools are hammerstones used to mine and beneficiate metal ore. Some of these have been modified to facilitate hafting. The functional uses of these tools have been identified by the form and position of use- wear on a macroscopic level. The recording procedure encompasses cobble morphology, the degree, type and direction of use, breakage patterns, the reuse of tools and tool fragments and the classification of hafting modification. The possibility of tool specialization within tool types has been examined by the analysis of use-wear and cobble shape and size. The analysis of stone hammer size suggests that the Great Orme material is related to specific working techniques employed to extract ore from the different types of ore deposits. Ore comminution has been demonstrated to have been generally achieved by ‘block-on-block’ crushing with flat-sided hammers. Conclusions are draw on the overall efficiency of ore extraction in the Bronze Age and theories on the organization of mining are presented. The sedimentary form of the cobblestone tools has also been examined, including the identification of natural abrasion marks and features. At Cwmystwyth and the Great Orme possible sources of cobblestones have been studied in order to assess the nature of cobble selection.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSERC studentshipen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">Creative Commons Licence</a>.eng
dc.subjectPrehistoricen_US
dc.subjectBritainen_US
dc.subjectStone toolsen_US
dc.subjectMetal miningen_US
dc.subjectFunctionen_US
dc.subjectUse-wearen_US
dc.subjectCobble morphologyen_US
dc.subjectBronze Ageen_US
dc.subjectHammerstonesen_US
dc.titleStone tools employed in prehistoric metal mining. A functional study of cobblestone tools from prehistoric metalliferous mines in England and Wales in relation to mining strategies by use-wear analysis and cobble morphometryen_US
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Archaeological Sciencesen_US
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_US
dc.date.awarded1995
dc.description.publicnotesThe additional content files which accompanied the thesis are not available on Bradford Scholars, but are available from the British Library Ethos Service.en
refterms.dateFOA2019-07-03T09:55:40Z


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