Human sustainable development
Organisational sustainable development
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AbstractThis book contributes to our understanding of a neglected and poorly-understood concept within the development field: ‘capacity development’ in the context of human and organisational sustainable development. Relating ‘capacity development’ to other perspectives in development thinking and practice and giving an account of the concept’s genesis, the book introduces readers to recent empirical research initiatives that help to elucidate the concepts of capacity, capacity development, and capacity management. While capacity development initiatives and programmes have been used by most international and national agencies over the course of the last five decades, the term means different things to different people and especially to different major players in the international community. This weakens its effectiveness. This book therefore strives first of all to set ground rules that can be utilised by international aid providers such as UNDP, OECD, World Bank, and CIDA and practitioners alike.
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CitationAnaloui F and Danquah JK (2017) Critical capacity development. London: Palgrave.
Link to publisher’s versionhttps://www.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319474151#aboutBook
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Evaluation of a leadership development programme. Developing a ¿fit for purpose¿ model to evaluate a leadership development programme at the individual, departmental and organisational levels within the BBCOstell, Alistair; Hayward, Ian C. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-04-08)The research was aimed at addressing the challenge of evaluating a large scale change intervention in a large organisation and in a complex environment. Finding robust, meaningful yet realistic methodologies from among the array of possible approaches, methods and techniques has proved problematic, for both organisational practitioners and academics alike. The research explored this issue of choice from the perspective of ¿fit for purpose¿ and suggests a multi-faceted approach, using a range of evaluation methods and techniques, which were applied to an ongoing example at the BBC. It was also planned to use structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques to examine the relationships between variables critical to the study. The approach described represents a ¿pilot¿ evaluation exercise, which drew on data collected from early cohorts going through the BBC Leadership Programme, a key element of the ¿Making it Happen¿ change strategy initiated by the then Director General, Mr. Greg Dyke. As a second level of research, an evaluation of the primary evaluation itself, i.e. of the BBC Leadership Programme, was also undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the primary evaluation strategy and its implementation. Three hypotheses were examined in terms of programme impact: It was proposed that participation in the programme would bring about collective improvements in individual leadership behaviour (Ho1), leading to improved departmental performance across the business (Ho2), in turn, resulting in improved organisational performance (Ho3). Due to limitations in the application of the methodology it was not possible to use SEM analyses on the data collected. Alternative analyses failed to demonstrate conclusive support for all three hypotheses and, while other factors besides programme attendance appear to influence leadership performance the afore-mentioned limitations restrict the ability to draw firm conclusions. Following evaluation of the primary evaluation it was evident that, as a pilot exercise, important outcomes from the programme evaluation give rise to ¿lessons learned¿ and changes are suggested for any future evaluation exercise of this kind.
Investigation of a solvent-free continuous process to produce pharmaceutical co-crystals. Understanding and developing solvent-free continuous cocrystallisation (SFCC) through study of co-crystal formation under the application of heat, model shear and twin screw extrusion, including development of a near infrared spectroscopy partial least squares quantification methodKelly, Adrian L.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Gough, Timothy D.; Wood, Clive John (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2016)This project utilised a novel solvent-free continuous cocrystallisation (SFCC) method to manufacture pharmaceutical co-crystals. The objectives were to optimize the process towards achieving high co-crystal yields and to understand the behaviour of co-crystals under different conditions. Particular attention was paid to the development of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT). Twin screw, hot melt extrusion was the base technique of the SFCC process. Changing parameters such as temperature, screw speed and screw geometry was important for improving the co-crystal yield. The level of mixing and shear was directly influenced by the screw geometry, whilst the screw speed was an important parameter for controlling the residence time of the material during hot melt extrusion. Ibuprofen – nicotinamide 1:1 cocrystals and carbamazepine – nicotinamide 1:1 co-crystals were successfully manufactured using the SFCC method. Characterisation techniques were important for this project, and NIR spectroscopy proved to be a convenient, accurate analytical technique for identifying the formation of co-crystals along the extruder barrel. Separate thermal and model shear deformation studies were also carried out to determine the effect of temperature and shear on co-crystal formation for several different pharmaceutical co-crystal pairs. Finally, NIR spectroscopy was used to create two partial least squares regression models, for predicting the 1:1 co-crystal yield of ibuprofen – nicotinamide and carbamazepine – nicotinamide, when in a powder mixture with the respective pure API. It is believed that the prediction models created in this project can be used to facilitate future in-line PAT studies of pharmaceutical co-crystals during different manufacturing processes.
Development of geochemical identification and discrimination by Raman spectroscopy. The development of Raman spectroscopic methods for application to whole soil analysis and the separation of volcanic ashes for tephrachronologyEdwards, Howell G.M.; Scowen, Ian J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Munshi, Tasnim; Seaton, Colin C.; Surtees, Alexander P.H. (University of BradfordChemical and Forensic Sciences, 2015)Geochemistry plays a vital role in our understanding mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans (Albarède, F. 2003). More recently, geo-chemistry has played a vital role in the field of forensic investigation and in period dating. Forensic soil samples have been traditionally analysed via examinations of colour, texture and mineral content by physical or chemical methods. However, these methods leave any organic or water-soluble fractions unexamined. Tephrochronology (the dating of sedimentary sequences using volcanic ash layers) is an important tool for the dating and correlation of sedimentary sequences containing archives and proxies of past environmental change. Its importance in this area has increased since the increased free carbon in out atmosphere has made radio-carbon dating unreliable. Tephrochronology requires successful geo-chemical identification of the tephras, a method reliant on electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to analyse major element composition. However, it is often impossible to differentiate key tephra layers using EPMA alone. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry, since vibrational information is specific to the chemical bonds and symmetry of molecules, and can provide a fingerprint by which these can be identified. Here, we demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be used for the successful discrimination of mineral species in tephra through the analysis of individual glass shards. We further demonstrate how, with the use of oxidative preparation methods, Raman spectroscopy can be used to successfully discriminate between soil types using mineralogy as well as the organic and water-soluble fractions of soils.