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dc.contributor.authorBruce, A.*
dc.contributor.authorKelly, B.*
dc.contributor.authorChambers, B.*
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, Brendan T.*
dc.contributor.authorBloj, Marina*
dc.contributor.authorBradbury, J.*
dc.contributor.authorSheldon, T.A.*
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-26T14:27:44Z
dc.date.available2018-06-26T14:27:44Z
dc.date.issued2018-06
dc.identifier.citationBruce A, Kelly B, Chambers B et al (2018) The effect of adherence to spectacle wear on early developing literacy: a longitudinal study based in a large multi-ethnic city, Bradford, UK. BMJ Open. 8(6): e021277.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/16329
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractObjectives: To determine the impact of adherence to spectacle wear on visual acuity (VA) and developing literacy following vision screening at age 4–5 years. Design: Longitudinal study nested within the Born in Bradford birth cohort. Setting and participants: Observation of 944 children: 432 had failed vision screening and were referred (treatment group) and 512 randomly selected (comparison group) who had passed (<0.20 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in both eyes). Spectacle wear was observed in school for 2 years following screening and classified as adherent (wearing spectacles at each assessment) or non-adherent. Main outcome measures: Annual measures of VA using a crowded logMAR test. Literacy was measured by Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised subtest: letter identification. Results: The VA of all children improved with increasing age, −0.009 log units per month (95% CI −0.011 to −0.007) (worse eye). The VA of the adherent group improved significantly more than the comparison group, by an additional −0.008 log units per month (95% CI −0.009 to −0.007) (worse eye) and −0.004 log units per month (95% CI −0.005 to −0.003) in the better eye. Literacy was associated with the VA, letter identification (ID) reduced by −0.9 (95% CI −1.15 to −0.64) for every one line (0.10 logMAR) fall in VA (better eye). This association remained after adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors (−0.33, 95% CI −0.54 to −0.12). The adherent group consistently demonstrated higher letter-ID scores compared with the non-adherent group, with the greatest effect size (0.11) in year 3. Conclusions: Early literacy is associated with the level of VA; children who adhere to spectacle wear improve their VA and also have the potential to improve literacy. Our results suggest failure to adhere to spectacle wear has implications for the child’s vision and education.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAB is funded by a National Institute for Health Research Post- Doctoral Fellowship Award (PDF-2013-06-050). The Born in Bradford study presents independent research commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Care (NIHR CLAHRC) and the Programme Grants for Applied Research funding scheme (RP-PG-0407-10044).en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021277en_US
dc.rights© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectSpectacle wearen_US
dc.subjectVisual activity (VA)en_US
dc.subjectAdherenceen_US
dc.subjectEarly developing literacyen_US
dc.subjectLongitudinal studyen_US
dc.subjectMultiethnic cityen_US
dc.subjectBradforden_US
dc.titleThe effect of adherence to spectacle wear on early developing literacy: a longitudinal study based in a large multi-ethnic city, Bradford, UKen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2018-05-15
dc.date.application2018-06-12
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-29T03:22:42Z


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