The Community Pharmacists’ Role Enhancing Medicines Management for Type II Diabetes in Tripoli, Libya. A Randomised Controlled Trial in Community Pharmacy to Investigate Knowledge and Practice in Relation To Type II Diabetes and Glycaemic Control
AuthorElhatab, Nesrin M.
Graham, Anne M.
KeywordType II diabetes
Fasting plasma glucose
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAim/Objectives: There were two aims; improving type II diabetes glycaemic control; and enhancing the role of community pharmacists by engaging them in type II diabetes medicine management. Methods: This quantitative study collected data from both community pharmacists and patients. In a premises survey, 426 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to community pharmacies. In a knowledge survey, 125 questionnaires were distributed to community pharmacists. In a clinical trial, 40 community pharmacies were randomly assigned to be control (18) and intervention (22) premises. Each pharmacy recruited 4 or 5 patients with type II diabetes. 225 patients were recruited and assigned to receive usual pharmacist care (n=100) or a pre-defined pharmacist intervention (n=125). Results: Community pharmacists had good knowledge of diabetes with average scores 21/29 (±3.18). The differences between control and intervention groups in patients' HbA1c and FPG changes were not significant. In the intervention group patients' diabetes knowledge was significantly improved (p=0.031). In the intervention group HbA1c and FPG improved significantly and in the control group FPG improved significantly and HbA1c did not. Patients' self-reported self-management activities improved significantly around blood glucose measurements (p<0.001) and physical exercising (p=0.001). Attitudes around the value of tight control of diabetes improved (p<0.001). Conclusion: The findings suggest that community pharmacists in Libya may have the ability to improve type II diabetes care. The primary outcomes were not improved in intervention versus control. The before/after analysis showed significant improvement in primary outcomes in the intervention group and also in one of the primary outcomes in the control group. Patients' self-reported self-care activities and attitudes improved significantly in the intervention group.
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Quality of care in diabetic patients attending routine primary care clinics compared with those attending GP specialist clinics.Ismail, Hanif; Wright, J.; Rhodes, P.J.; Scally, Andy J. (2006)Aim To determine the impact on clinical outcomes of specialist diabetes clinics compared with routine primary care clinics. Methods Observational study measuring clinical performance (process/outcome measures) in the primary care sector. A cohort of patients attending specialist diabetes clinics was compared with a control cohort of patients attending routine primary care clinics. Results Patients seen in specialist diabetes clinics had a significantly higher HbA1c than patients in routine primary care clinics (mean difference 0.58%; P < 0.001) but there was no significant difference in rate of improvement with visits compared with primary care clinics. In contrast, patients seen in the routine primary care clinics had significantly higher cholesterol levels (mean difference 0.24 mmol/l; P < 0.001) compared with patients in specialist diabetes clinics and their improvement was significantly greater over time (mean difference 0.14 mmol/l per visit compared with 0.10 mmol/l; P < 0.006). Patients in routine primary care clinics also had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (mean difference 1.6 mmHg; P < 0.007) but there was no difference in improvement with time compared with specialist diabetes clinics. Uptake of podiatry and retinal screening was significantly lower in patients attending routine primary care clinics, but this difference disappeared with time, with significant increases in uptake in the primary care clinic group. Weight increased in both groups significantly with time, but more so in the specialist clinic patients (mean increase 0.18 kg per visit more compared with routine clinic primary care patients; P < 0.001). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the provision of primary care services for patients with diabetes, whether traditional general practitioner clinics or diabetes clinics run by general practitioners with special interests, is effective in reducing HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure. However, the same provision of care was unable to prevent increasing weight or creatinine over time. No evidence was found that patients in specialist clinics do better than patients in routine primary care clinics.
Healthcare workers' perceptions on diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and foot care in Fiji: a qualitative studyRanuve, M.S.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-08)To explore the perception of healthcare workers (HCWs) on diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and foot care in Rotuma, Fiji. Using a qualitative study design, two focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among HCWs. A semistructured open-ended questionnaire was used to guide the discussion session. Each FGD was audiorecorded and was transcribed. The transcriptions were then manually analysed using thematic analysis. Rotuma hospital, Fiji. HCWs who were working in Rotuma hospital for at least a year and were involved in clinical foot care of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were included. There were five main themes, namely, depth of knowledge, quality of care in practice, factors of influence on practice, lack of resources and capacity building. Participants had superficial knowledge that showed lack of in-depth scientific knowledge. A lack of staffing in the clinics affected the delivery of service. Additionally, patients defaulting clinics, late presentations with DFU and traditional medicine also affected the quality of healthcare service in clinics. There was also a need for a multidisciplinary team to prevent and manage DFU. HCWs mostly advised on glycaemic control and ignored offering foot care advice in clinics due mainly to the lack of sound knowledge on foot care. There was also a lack of resources, infrastructure, space and professional development opportunities, which negatively impacted how HCWs deliver foot care services to patients. HCWs lack significant in-depth knowledge on DFU and foot care. In addition, these are the availability of traditional medicine that delays presentations to hospital, further reducing the quality of services. HCWs need to keep their knowledge and skills updated through regular in-service training on foot care. Resources, infrastructure and supply chains need to be maintained by those in power to ensure HCWs deliver quality foot care services.
A fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in corneal imagesAl-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Al-Waisy, Alaa S.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Malik, R.A.; Brahma, A.; Chen, X. (2016-10)Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering. Second, morphological operations are applied to remove unwanted objects in the input image such as epithelial cells and small nerve segments. Finally, an edge detection step is applied to detect all the nerves in the input image. In this step, an efficient algorithm for connecting discontinuous nerves is proposed. In the morphometric parameters quantification part, a number of features are extracted, including thickness, tortuosity and length of nerve, which may be used for the early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy and when planning Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) or Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The performance of the proposed segmentation system is evaluated against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 498 corneal sub-basal nerve images (238 are normal and 260 are abnormal). In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed system in extracting morphometric features with clinical utility was evaluated in 919 images taken from healthy subjects and diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. We demonstrate rapid (13 seconds/image), robust and effective automated corneal nerve quantification. The proposed system will be deployed as a useful clinical tool to support the expertise of ophthalmologists and save the clinician time in a busy clinical setting.