The Community Pharmacists’ Role Enhancing Medicines Management for Type II Diabetes in Tripoli, Libya. A Randomised Controlled Trial in Community Pharmacy to Investigate Knowledge and Practice in Relation To Type II Diabetes and Glycaemic Control
AuthorElhatab, Nesrin M.
Graham, Anne M.
KeywordType II diabetes
Fasting plasma glucose
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAim/Objectives: There were two aims; improving type II diabetes glycaemic control; and enhancing the role of community pharmacists by engaging them in type II diabetes medicine management. Methods: This quantitative study collected data from both community pharmacists and patients. In a premises survey, 426 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to community pharmacies. In a knowledge survey, 125 questionnaires were distributed to community pharmacists. In a clinical trial, 40 community pharmacies were randomly assigned to be control (18) and intervention (22) premises. Each pharmacy recruited 4 or 5 patients with type II diabetes. 225 patients were recruited and assigned to receive usual pharmacist care (n=100) or a pre-defined pharmacist intervention (n=125). Results: Community pharmacists had good knowledge of diabetes with average scores 21/29 (±3.18). The differences between control and intervention groups in patients' HbA1c and FPG changes were not significant. In the intervention group patients' diabetes knowledge was significantly improved (p=0.031). In the intervention group HbA1c and FPG improved significantly and in the control group FPG improved significantly and HbA1c did not. Patients' self-reported self-management activities improved significantly around blood glucose measurements (p<0.001) and physical exercising (p=0.001). Attitudes around the value of tight control of diabetes improved (p<0.001). Conclusion: The findings suggest that community pharmacists in Libya may have the ability to improve type II diabetes care. The primary outcomes were not improved in intervention versus control. The before/after analysis showed significant improvement in primary outcomes in the intervention group and also in one of the primary outcomes in the control group. Patients' self-reported self-care activities and attitudes improved significantly in the intervention group.
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A fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in corneal imagesAl-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Al-Waisy, Alaa S.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Malik, R.A.; Brahma, A.; Chen, X. (2016-10)Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering. Second, morphological operations are applied to remove unwanted objects in the input image such as epithelial cells and small nerve segments. Finally, an edge detection step is applied to detect all the nerves in the input image. In this step, an efficient algorithm for connecting discontinuous nerves is proposed. In the morphometric parameters quantification part, a number of features are extracted, including thickness, tortuosity and length of nerve, which may be used for the early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy and when planning Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) or Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The performance of the proposed segmentation system is evaluated against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 498 corneal sub-basal nerve images (238 are normal and 260 are abnormal). In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed system in extracting morphometric features with clinical utility was evaluated in 919 images taken from healthy subjects and diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. We demonstrate rapid (13 seconds/image), robust and effective automated corneal nerve quantification. The proposed system will be deployed as a useful clinical tool to support the expertise of ophthalmologists and save the clinician time in a busy clinical setting.
Quality of care in diabetic patients attending routine primary care clinics compared with those attending GP specialist clinics.Ismail, Hanif; Wright, J.; Rhodes, P.J.; Scally, Andy J. (2006)Aim To determine the impact on clinical outcomes of specialist diabetes clinics compared with routine primary care clinics. Methods Observational study measuring clinical performance (process/outcome measures) in the primary care sector. A cohort of patients attending specialist diabetes clinics was compared with a control cohort of patients attending routine primary care clinics. Results Patients seen in specialist diabetes clinics had a significantly higher HbA1c than patients in routine primary care clinics (mean difference 0.58%; P < 0.001) but there was no significant difference in rate of improvement with visits compared with primary care clinics. In contrast, patients seen in the routine primary care clinics had significantly higher cholesterol levels (mean difference 0.24 mmol/l; P < 0.001) compared with patients in specialist diabetes clinics and their improvement was significantly greater over time (mean difference 0.14 mmol/l per visit compared with 0.10 mmol/l; P < 0.006). Patients in routine primary care clinics also had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (mean difference 1.6 mmHg; P < 0.007) but there was no difference in improvement with time compared with specialist diabetes clinics. Uptake of podiatry and retinal screening was significantly lower in patients attending routine primary care clinics, but this difference disappeared with time, with significant increases in uptake in the primary care clinic group. Weight increased in both groups significantly with time, but more so in the specialist clinic patients (mean increase 0.18 kg per visit more compared with routine clinic primary care patients; P < 0.001). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the provision of primary care services for patients with diabetes, whether traditional general practitioner clinics or diabetes clinics run by general practitioners with special interests, is effective in reducing HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure. However, the same provision of care was unable to prevent increasing weight or creatinine over time. No evidence was found that patients in specialist clinics do better than patients in routine primary care clinics.
Diabetes in Kuwait - current patients' experiences of their medical treatment(s) with emphasis on renal complications as compared with worldwide guidelinesNaylor, Ian; Buhajeeh, Eman A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2015)Introduction: The studies reported in this thesis investigated a number of patient orientated aspects of its current diagnosis, management and treatment in Kuwait. A comprehensive literature survey is presented with a detailed critical analysis of the very limited number of published material relevant to type 2 diabetes in Kuwait is also provided. A concise list of aims and objectives is also provided. Methodology: The methodology used to derive knowledge of the present situation from the patient perspective, was a series of relevant questions, devised based on the internationally used diabetes Michigan questionnaire. Face to face interviews were used throughout for both patients and medical staff. Suitable data analysis was performed. Results: A pilot study consulted 10 Kuwaiti and 10 non-Kuwaiti patients, and after analysis of their data it was found to be reliable, appropriate and capable of being analysed and so was extended to a larger study of 109 diabetic patients. These 109 diabetic patients were studied in thirteen clinics distributed throughout Kuwait. Two groups of patients were studied – Kuwaiti nationals and non-Kuwaitis both of whom were treated at these clinics during their residency in Kuwait. 38 questions were asked including demographics, medical treatment, monitoring of their disease, physiological consequences and dietary aspects. The major findings were that patients considered two major areas could be improved to enhance the treatment of their disease. The first was to improve the degree of empathy shown to them by the medical/nursing staff and secondly to provide simple practical advice on exercise, dietary considerations and renal aspects of their disease. More comprehensive findings are presented in the thesis but many of these were minor compared with these two major aspects. Also presented are interviews with the medical staff in Kuwait who treat diabetic patients and the problems they face when treating their disease. The opinions and views of selected ophthalmologists and renal specialists are also presented. Medical views were also sought in the UK- Ascot Rehabilitation above their experiences treating diabetic patients from Kuwait. Another aspect of the study was to interview Kuwaiti nationals who had been sent to a clinic in Ascot, UK for the treatment of the serious consequences of their conditions. Many of these were had type 2 diabetes and their views and perspectives of their treatment in Kuwait were gathered as being representative of the long term treatment of this condition. Discussions and Conclusions: The thesis discusses in some detail all the results which were obtained and concludes with a series of recommendations which could be taken to improve the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Kuwait.