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dc.contributor.authorMignon, Charles
dc.contributor.authorUzunbajakava, N.E.
dc.contributor.authorRaafs, B.
dc.contributor.authorBotchkareva, Natalia V.
dc.contributor.authorTobin, Desmond J.
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-23T15:27:06Z
dc.date.available2018-04-23T15:27:06Z
dc.date.issued2017-06-05
dc.identifier.citationMignon C, Uzunbajakava NE, Raafs B et al (2017) Photobiomodulation of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro: decisive role of cell culture conditions and treatment protocols on experimental outcome. Scientific Reports. 7. No 2797.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/15613
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractPhotobiomodulation-based (LLLT) therapies show tantalizing promise for treatment of skin diseases. Confidence in this approach is blighted however by lamentable inconsistency in published experimental designs, and so complicates interpretation. Here we interrogate the appropriateness of a range of previously-reported treatment parameters, including light wavelength, irradiance and radiant exposure, as well as cell culture conditions (e.g., serum concentration, cell confluency, medium refreshment, direct/indirect treatment, oxygen concentration, etc.), in primary cultures of normal human dermal fibroblasts exposed to visible and near infra-red (NIR) light. Apart from irradiance, all study parameters impacted significantly on fibroblast metabolic activity. Moreover, when cells were grown at atmospheric O2 levels (i.e. 20%) short wavelength light inhibited cell metabolism, while negligible effects were seen with long visible and NIR wavelength. By contrast, NIR stimulated cells when exposed to dermal tissue oxygen levels (approx. 2%). The impact of culture conditions was further seen when inhibitory effects of short wavelength light were reduced with increasing serum concentration and cell confluency. We conclude that a significant source of problematic interpretations in photobiomodulation reports derives from poor optimization of study design. Further development of this field using in vitro/ex vivo models should embrace significant standardization of study design, ideally within a design-of-experiment setting.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-02802-0en_US
dc.rights© 2017 The Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectBiological techniques; Skin modelsen_US
dc.titlePhotobiomodulation of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro: decisive role of cell culture conditions and treatment protocols on experimental outcomeen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2017-04-19
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-29T03:15:43Z


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