Now showing items 1-20 of 2647

    • Pottery

      Copper, Michael (2023-06)
      An interim report on pottery recovered during underwater surveys undertaken around a series of artificial islets on the islands of North and South Uist in 2022.
    • Pottery

      Copper, Michael (2022-08)
      An interim report on pottery excavated at the Neolithic islet of Loch Bhorgastail, Isle of Lewis, Scotland, in 2021.
    • The effect of aspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid on urinary biomarkers of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and platelet activation in participants of the seAFOod polyp prevention trial

      Sun, G.; Fuller, H.; Fenton, H.; Race, Amanda D.; Downing, A.; Williams, E.A.; Rees, C.J.; Brown, L.C.; Loadman, Paul; Hull, M.A. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2023)
      Urinary prostaglandin (PG) E metabolite (PGE-M) and 11-dehydro (d)-thromboxane (TX) B2 are biomarkers of cyclooxygenase-dependent prostanoid synthesis. We investigated (1) the effect of aspirin 300 mg daily and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 2000 mg daily, alone and in combination, on urinary biomarker levels and, (2) whether urinary biomarker levels predicted colorectal polyp risk, during participation in the seAFOod polyp prevention trial. Urinary PGE-M and 11-d-TXB2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The relationship between urinary biomarker levels and colorectal polyp outcomes was investigated using negative binomial (polyp number) and logistic (% with one or more polyps) regression models. Despite wide temporal variability in PGE-M and 11-d-TXB2 levels within individuals, both aspirin and, to a lesser extent, EPA decreased levels of both biomarkers (74% [P ≤ .001] and 8% [P ≤ .05] reduction in median 11-d-TXB2 values, respectively). In the placebo group, a high (quartile [Q] 2-4) baseline 11-d-TXB2 level predicted increased polyp number (incidence rate ratio [IRR] [95% CI] 2.26 [1.11,4.58]) and risk (odds ratio [95% CI] 3.56 [1.09,11.63]). A low (Q1) on-treatment 11-d-TXB2 level predicted reduced colorectal polyp number compared to placebo (IRR 0.34 [0.12,0.93] for combination aspirin and EPA treatment) compared to high on-treatment 11-d-TXB2 values (0.61 [0.34,1.11]). Aspirin and EPA both inhibit PGE-M and 11-d-TXB2 synthesis in keeping with shared in vivo cyclooxygenase inhibition. Colorectal polyp risk and treatment response prediction by 11-d-TXB2 is consistent with a role for platelet activation during early colorectal carcinogenesis. The use of urinary 11-d-TXB2 measurement for a precision approach to colorectal cancer risk prediction and chemoprevention requires prospective evaluation.
    • Polymorphisms in Cyclooxygenase, Lipoxygenase and TP53 genes predict colorectal polyp risk reduction by aspirin in the seAFOod polyp prevention trial

      Davies, J.R.; Mell, T.; Fuller, H.; Harland, M.; Saleh, R.N.M.; Race, Amanda D.; Rees, C.J.; Brown, L.C.; Loadman, Paul; Downing, A.; et al. (AACR, 2023-11)
      Aspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduce colorectal adenomatous polyp risk and affect synthesis of oxylipins including prostaglandin E2. We investigated whether 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxylipin metabolism genes such as cyclooxygenase [PTGS] and lipoxygenase [ALOX], as well as 7 SNPs already associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk reduction by aspirin (eg. TP53; rs104522), modified the effects of aspirin and EPA on colorectal polyp recurrence in the randomised 2x2 factorial seAFOod trial. Treatment effects were reported as the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by stratifying negative binomial and Poisson regression analyses of colorectal polyp risk on SNP genotype. Statistical significance was reported with adjustment for the false discovery rate as the P and q value. Five hundred and forty-two (of 707) trial participants had both genotype and colonoscopy outcome data. Reduction in colorectal polyp risk in aspirin users compared with non-aspirin users was restricted to rs4837960 (PTGS1) common homozygotes (IRR 0.69 [95%CI 0.53,0.90]; q=0.06), rs2745557 (PTGS2) compound heterozygote-rare homozygotes (IRR 0.60 [0.41,0.88]; q=0.06), rs7090328 (ALOX5) rare homozygotes (IRR 0.27 [0.11,0.64]; q=0.05), rs2073438 (ALOX12) common homozygotes (IRR 0.57 [0.41,0.80]; q=0.05), and rs104522 (TP53) rare homozygotes (IRR 0.37 [0.17,0.79]; q=0.06). No modification of colorectal polyp risk in EPA users was observed. In conclusion, genetic variants relevant to the proposed mechanism of action on oxylipins are associated with differential colorectal polyp risk reduction by aspirin in individuals who develop multiple colorectal polyps. SNP genotypes should be considered during development of personalised, predictive models of CRC chemoprevention by aspirin.
    • Pottery from BHO16; Pottery from LAN16/17; and The pottery

      Copper, Michael (2019-04)
      This interim report covers archaeological work undertaken at two Neolithic islet sites or crannogs, Loch Bhorgastail and Loch Langabhat, on the Isle of Lewis, Outer Hebrides, from 15-29 July 2017 (Figure 1). Fieldwork in 2017 included photogrammetric survey of both stone-built islets (under and above water), palaeoenvironmental coring of both loch beds, excavation at Loch Langabhat and vegetation clearance at Loch Bhorgastail. This work followed on directly from fieldwork carried out in 2016; the present report should therefore be read in conjunction with that report (Garrow, Sturt & Copper 2017). Our main results for fieldwork in 2017 included: • Construction of detailed 3D photogrammetric models of both sites • A better understanding of the construction techniques used in the creation of both islets • Recovery of c. 0.60m of core material from each loch for palaeoenvironmental assessment • The identification and excavation of occupation deposits and a small structure at Loch Langabhat
    • A conservative party: pots and people in the Hebridean Neolithic

      Copper, Michael; Armit, Ian (2018-10-22)
      Recent analysis of the ceramic assemblage from the Neolithic loch islet settlement of Eilean Dòmhnuill, North Uist, in the Western Isles of Scotland has highlighted the intense conservatism of the potting traditions over a period of more than 800 years. Hebridean Neolithic pottery exhibits clear relationships with pottery from Argyll, Arran, and Bute, as well as Orkney and the north-east mainland of Scotland. It appears to have developed a distinctive, often decoratively elaborate regional form very soon after its initial appearance, which subsequently appears to have undergone little or no significant change until the introduction of Grooved Ware in the early 3rd millennium BC. An association exists between large assemblages of elaborately decorated Hebridean pottery and a number of artificial islets in freshwater lochs, some very small and producing little or no evidence for domestic activities. This might be explained by the importance of commensality in mediating relations between small communities in the Western Isles at such sites following the introduction of agriculture in the 2nd quarter of the 4th millennium BC. The conservatism and stasis evident at Eilean Dòmhnuill, in the face of environmental decline, raises wider issues around the adaptive capabilities of the first farming communities prior to significant social changes in the earlier 3rd millennium BC.
    • Appendix 1: Pottery from Loch Langabhat, Loch Bhorgastail and Loch Arnish

      Copper, Michael (2017-03)
      An interim report on pottery recovered from three loch islet sites in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, during fieldwork in 2016.
    • Hypoxia-induced SETX links replication stress with the unfolded protein response

      Ramachandran, S.; Ma, T.S.; Griffin, J.; Ng, N.; Foskolou, I.P.; Hwang, M-S.; Victori, P.; Cheng, W-C.; Buffa, F.M.; Leszczynska, K.B.; et al. (2021)
      Tumour hypoxia is associated with poor patient prognosis and therapy resistance. A unique transcriptional response is initiated by hypoxia which includes the rapid activation of numerous transcription factors in a background of reduced global transcription. Here, we show that the biological response to hypoxia includes the accumulation of R-loops and the induction of the RNA/DNA helicase SETX. In the absence of hypoxia-induced SETX, R-loop levels increase, DNA damage accumulates, and DNA replication rates decrease. Therefore, suggesting that, SETX plays a role in protecting cells from DNA damage induced during transcription in hypoxia. Importantly, we propose that the mechanism of SETX induction in hypoxia is reliant on the PERK/ATF4 arm of the unfolded protein response. These data not only highlight the unique cellular response to hypoxia, which includes both a replication stress-dependent DNA damage response and an unfolded protein response but uncover a novel link between these two distinct pathways.
    • High Temperature Drives Topoisomerase Mediated Chromosomal Break Repair Pathway Choice.

      Ashour, M.E.; Allam, W.; Elsayed, W.; Atteya, R.; Elserafy, M.; Magdeldin, S.; Hassan, M.K.; El-Khamisy, Sherif (2021-05)
      Cancer-causing mutations often arise from inappropriate DNA repair, yet acute exposure to DNA damage is widely used to treat cancer. The challenge remains in how to specifically induce excessive DNA damage in cancer cells while minimizing the undesirable effects of genomic instability in noncancerous cells. One approach is the acute exposure to hyperthermia, which suppresses DNA repair and synergizes with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An exception, however, is the protective effect of hyperthermia on topoisomerase targeting therapeutics. The molecular explanation for this conundrum remains unclear. Here, we show that hyperthermia suppresses the level of topoisomerase mediated single- and double-strand breaks induced by exposure to topoisomerase poisons. We further uncover that, hyperthermia suppresses hallmarks of genomic instability induced by topoisomerase targeting therapeutics by inhibiting nuclease activities, thereby channeling repair to error-free pathways driven by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases. These findings provide an explanation for the protective effect of hyperthermia from topoisomerase-induced DNA damage and may help to explain the inverse relationship between cancer incidence and temperature. They also pave the way for the use of controlled heat as a therapeutic adjunct to topoisomerase targeting therapeutics.
    • A role for Rad5 in ribonucleoside monophosphate (rNMP) tolerance

      Elserafy, M.; El-Sheikh, I.; Fleifel, D.; Atteya, R.; AlOkda, A.; Abdrabbou, M.M.; Nasr, M.; El-Khamisy, Sherif (2021-08)
      Ribonucleoside monophosphate (rNMP) incorporation in genomic DNA poses a significant threat to genomic integrity. In addition to repair, DNA damage tolerance mechanisms ensure replication progression upon encountering unrepaired lesions. One player in the tolerance mechanism is Rad5, which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and helicase. Here, we report a new role for yeast Rad5 in tolerating rNMP incorporation, in the absence of the bona fide ribonucleotide excision repair pathway via RNase H2. This role of Rad5 is further highlighted after replication stress induced by hydroxyurea or by increasing rNMP genomic burden using a mutant DNA polymerase (Pol ε - Pol2-M644G). We further demonstrate the importance of the ATPase and ubiquitin ligase domains of Rad5 in rNMP tolerance. These findings suggest a similar role for the human Rad5 homologues helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and SNF2 Histone Linker PHD RING Helicase (SHPRH) in rNMP tolerance, which may impact the response of cancer cells to replication stress-inducing therapeutics.
    • Identification and Validation of ERK5 as a DNA Damage Modulating Drug Target in Glioblastoma

      Carmell, N.; Rominiyi, O.; Myers, K.N.; McGarrity-Cottrell, C.; Vanderlinden, A.; Lad, N.; Perroux-David, E.; El-Khamisy, Sherif; Fernando, M.; Finegan, K.G.; et al. (2021-03)
      Brain tumours kill more children and adults under 40 than any other cancer, with approximately half of primary brain tumours being diagnosed as high-grade malignancies known as glioblastomas. Despite de-bulking surgery combined with chemo-/radiotherapy regimens, the mean survival for these patients is only around 15 months, with less than 10% surviving over 5 years. This dismal prognosis highlights the urgent need to develop novel agents to improve the treatment of these tumours. To address this need, we carried out a human kinome siRNA screen to identify potential drug targets that augment the effectiveness of temozolomide (TMZ)-the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic agent used to treat glioblastoma. From this we identified ERK5/MAPK7, which we subsequently validated using a range of siRNA and small molecule inhibitors within a panel of glioma cells. Mechanistically, we find that ERK5 promotes efficient repair of TMZ-induced DNA lesions to confer cell survival and clonogenic capacity. Finally, using several glioblastoma patient cohorts we provide target validation data for ERK5 as a novel drug target, revealing that heightened ERK5 expression at both the mRNA and protein level is associated with increased tumour grade and poorer patient survival. Collectively, these findings provide a foundation to develop clinically effective ERK5 targeting strategies in glioblastomas and establish much-needed enhancement of the therapeutic repertoire used to treat this currently incurable disease.
    • SMN-deficient cells exhibit increased ribosomal DNA damage.

      Karyka, E.; Ramirez, N.B.; Webster, C.P.; Marchi, P.M.; Graves, E.J.; Godena, V.K.; Marrone, L.; Bhargava, A.; Ray, S.; Ning, K.; et al. (2022-08)
      Spinal muscular atrophy, the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is a motor neuron disease caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is a multifunctional protein that is implicated in numerous cytoplasmic and nuclear processes. Recently, increasing attention is being paid to the role of SMN in the maintenance of DNA integrity. DNA damage and genome instability have been linked to a range of neurodegenerative diseases. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) represents a particularly unstable locus undergoing frequent breakage. Instability in rDNA has been associated with cancer, premature ageing syndromes, and a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that SMN-deficient cells exhibit increased rDNA damage leading to impaired ribosomal RNA synthesis and translation. We also unravel an interaction between SMN and RNA polymerase I. Moreover, we uncover an spinal muscular atrophy motor neuron-specific deficiency of DDX21 protein, which is required for resolving R-loops in the nucleolus. Taken together, our findings suggest a new role of SMN in rDNA integrity.
    • Defective repair of topoisomerase I induced chromosomal damage in Huntington's disease

      Palminha, N.M.; Dos Santos Souza, C.; Griffin, J.; Liao, C.; Ferraiuolo, L.; El-Khamisy, Sherif (2022-03)
      Topoisomerase1 (TOP1)-mediated chromosomal breaks are endogenous sources of DNA damage that affect neuronal genome stability. Whether TOP1 DNA breaks are sources of genomic instability in Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Here, we report defective 53BP1 recruitment in multiple HD cell models, including striatal neurons derived from HD patients. Defective 53BP1 recruitment is due to reduced H2A ubiquitination caused by the limited RNF168 activity. The reduced availability of RNF168 is caused by an increased interaction with p62, a protein involved in selective autophagy. Depletion of p62 or disruption of the interaction between RNAF168 and p62 was sufficient to restore 53BP1 enrichment and subsequent DNA repair in HD models, providing new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. These findings are reminiscent to what was described for p62 accumulation caused by C9orf72 expansion in ALS/FTD and suggest a common mechanism by which protein aggregation perturb DNA repair signaling.
    • CORM-3 induces DNA damage through Ru(II) binding to DNA

      Lyon, R.F.; Southam, H.M.; Trevitt, C.R.; Liao, C.; El-Khamisy, Sherif; Poole, R.K.; Williamson, M.P. (2022-07-04)
      When the 'CO-releasing molecule-3', CORM-3 (Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)), is dissolved in water it forms a range of ruthenium complexes. These are taken up by cells and bind to intracellular ligands, notably thiols such as cysteine and glutathione, where the Ru(II) reaches high intracellular concentrations. Here, we show that the Ru(II) ion also binds to DNA, at exposed guanosine N7 positions. It therefore has a similar cellular target to the anticancer drug cisplatin, but not identical, because Ru(II) shows no evidence of forming intramolecular crossbridges in the DNA. The reaction is slow, and with excess Ru, intermolecular DNA crossbridges are formed. The addition of CORM-3 to human colorectal cancer cells leads to strand breaks in the DNA, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay. DNA damage is inhibited by growth media containing amino acids, which bind to extracellular Ru and prevent its entry into cells. We conclude that the cytotoxicity of Ru(II) is different from that of platinum, making it a promising development target for cancer therapeutics.
    • Oxidative DNA damage and repair at non-coding regulatory regions

      El-Khamisy, Sherif (2023-11)
      DNA breaks at protein-coding sequences are well-established threats to tissue homeostasis and maintenance. They arise from the exposure to intracellular and environmental genotoxins, causing damage in one or two strands of the DNA. DNA breaks have been also reported in non-coding regulatory regions such as enhancers and promoters. They arise from essential cellular processes required for gene transcription, cell identity and function. One such process that has attracted recent attention is the oxidative demethylation of DNA and histones, which generates abasic sites and DNA single-strand breaks. Here, we discuss how oxidative DNA breaks at non-coding regulatory regions are generated and the recently reported role of NuMA (nuclear mitotic apparatus) protein in promoting transcription and repair at these regions.
    • High Glucose Increases DNA Damage and Elevates the Expression of Multiple DDR Genes

      Rahmoon, M.A.; Elghaish, R.A.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Alaswad, Z.; Gad, M.Z.; El-Khamisy, Sherif; Elserafy, M. (2023-01-05)
      The DNA Damage Response (DDR) pathways sense DNA damage and coordinate robust DNA repair and bypass mechanisms. A series of repair proteins are recruited depending on the type of breaks and lesions to ensure overall survival. An increase in glucose levels was shown to induce genome instability, yet the links between DDR and glucose are still not well investigated. In this study, we aimed to identify dysregulation in the transcriptome of normal and cancerous breast cell lines upon changing glucose levels. We first performed bioinformatics analysis using a microarray dataset containing the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 and the normal human mammary epithelium MCF10A cell lines grown in high glucose (HG) or in the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2DG). Interestingly, multiple DDR genes were significantly upregulated in both cell lines grown in HG. In the wet lab, we remarkably found that HG results in severe DNA damage to TNBC cells as observed using the comet assay. In addition, several DDR genes were confirmed to be upregulated using qPCR analysis in the same cell line. Our results propose a strong need for DDR pathways in the presence of HG to oppose the severe DNA damage induced in cells.
    • A mechanism for oxidative damage repair at gene regulatory elements

      Swagat, R.; Abugable, A.A.; Parker, J.; Liversidge, K.; Palminha, N.M.; Liao, C.; Acosta-Martin, A.E.; Souza, C.D.S.; Jurga, Mateusz; Sudbery, I.; et al. (2022-09-29)
      Oxidative genome damage is an unavoidable consequence of cellular metabolism. It arises at gene regulatory elements by epigenetic demethylation during transcriptional activation1,2. Here we show that promoters are protected from oxidative damage via a process mediated by the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA (also known as NUMA1). NuMA exhibits genomic occupancy approximately 100 bp around transcription start sites. It binds the initiating form of RNA polymerase II, pause-release factors and single-strand break repair (SSBR) components such as TDP1. The binding is increased on chromatin following oxidative damage, and TDP1 enrichment at damaged chromatin is facilitated by NuMA. Depletion of NuMA increases oxidative damage at promoters. NuMA promotes transcription by limiting the polyADP-ribosylation of RNA polymerase II, increasing its availability and release from pausing at promoters. Metabolic labelling of nascent RNA identifies genes that depend on NuMA for transcription including immediate-early response genes. Complementation of NuMA-deficient cells with a mutant that mediates binding to SSBR, or a mitotic separation-of-function mutant, restores SSBR defects. These findings underscore the importance of oxidative DNA damage repair at gene regulatory elements and describe a process that fulfils this function.
    • Colorectal polyp outcomes after participation in the seAFOod polyp prevention trial: Evidence of rebound elevated colorectal polyp risk after short-term aspirin use

      Downing, A.; Fenton, H.; Nickerson, C.; Loadman, Paul; Williams, E.A.; Rees, C.J.; Brown, L.C.; Morris, E.J.A.; Hull, M.A. (2023-09)
      The seAFOod polyp prevention trial was a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of aspirin 300 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 2000 mg daily in individuals who had a screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Aspirin treatment was associated with a 20% reduction in colorectal polyp number at BCSP surveillance colonoscopy 12 months later. It is unclear what happens to colorectal polyp risk after short-term aspirin use. To investigate colorectal polyp risk according to the original trial treatment allocation, up to 6 years after trial participation. All seAFOod trial participants were scheduled for further BCSP surveillance and provided informed consent for the collection of colonoscopy outcomes. We linked BCSP colonoscopy data to trial outcomes data. In total, 507 individuals underwent one or more colonoscopies after trial participation. Individuals grouped by treatment allocation were well matched for clinical characteristics, follow-up duration and number of surveillance colonoscopies. The polyp detection rate (PDR; the number of individuals who had ≥1 colorectal polyp detected) after randomization to placebo aspirin was 71.1%. The PDR was 80.1% for individuals who had received aspirin (odds ratio [OR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.02, 1.24]; p = 0.02). There was no difference in colorectal polyp outcomes between individuals who had been allocated to EPA compared with its placebo (OR for PDR 1.00 [0.91, 1.10]; p = 0.92). Individuals who received aspirin in the seAFOod trial demonstrated increased colorectal polyp risk during post-trial surveillance. Rebound elevated neoplastic risk after short-term aspirin use has important implications for aspirin cessation driven by age-related bleeding risk. ISRCTN05926847.
    • Plasma and rectal mucosal oxylipin levels during aspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in the seAFOod polyp prevention trial

      Fuller, H.; Race, Amanda D.; Fenton, H.; Burke, L.; Downing, A.; Williams, E.A.; Rees, C.J.; Brown, L.C.; Loadman, Paul; Hull, M.A. (2023-05)
      Aspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have colorectal polyp prevention activity, alone and in combination. This study measured levels of plasma and rectal mucosal oxylipins in participants of the seAFOod 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, who received aspirin 300 mg daily and EPA 2000 mg free fatty acid, alone and in combination, for 12 months. Resolvin (Rv) E1, 15-epi-lipoxin (LX) A4 and respective precursors 18-HEPE and 15-HETE (with chiral separation) were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in plasma taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months, as well as rectal mucosa obtained at trial exit colonoscopy at 12 months, in 401 trial participants. Despite detection of S- and R- enantiomers of 18-HEPE and 15-HETE in ng/ml concentrations, RvE1 or 15‑epi-LXA4 were not detected above a limit of detection of 20 pg/ml in plasma or rectal mucosa, even in individuals randomised to both aspirin and EPA. We have confirmed in a large clinical trial cohort that prolonged (12 months) treatment with EPA is associated with increased plasma 18-HEPE concentrations (median [inter-quartile range] total 18-HEPE 0.51 [0.21-1.95] ng/ml at baseline versus 0.95 [0.46-4.06] ng/ml at 6 months [P
    • Cytochrome P450 Binding and Bioactivation of Tumor-targeted Duocarmycin Agents

      Bart, A.G.; Morais, Goreti R.; Vangala, Venu R.; Loadman, Paul; Pors, Klaus; Scott, E.E. (2022-01)
      Duocarmycin natural products are promising anti-cancer cytotoxins but too potent for systemic use. Re-engineering of the duocarmycin scaffold has enabled the discovery of prodrugs designed for bioactivation by tissue-specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. Lead prodrugs bioactivated by both P450 isoforms CYP1A1 and CYP2W1 have shown promising results in xenograft studies, however to fully understand the potential of these agents it is desirable to compare dual-targeting compounds with isoform-selective analogs. Such redesign requires insight into the molecular interactions with these P450 enzymes. Herein binding and metabolism of the individual stereoisomers of the indole-based duocarmycin prodrug ICT2700 and a nontoxic benzofuran analog ICT2726 were evaluated with CYP1A1 and CYP2W1, revealing differences exploitable for drug design. While enantiomers of both compounds bound to and were metabolized by CYP1A1, the stereochemistry of the chloromethyl fragment was critical for CYP2W1 interactions. CYP2W1 differentially binds the S enantiomer of ICT2726 and its metabolite profile could potentially be used as a biomarker to identify CYP2W1 functional activity. In contrast to benzofuran-based ICT2726, CYP2W1 differentially binds the R isomer of the indole-based ICT2700 over the S stereoisomer. Thus the ICT2700 R configuration warrants further investigation as a scaffold to favor CYP2W1-selective bioactivation. Furthermore, structures of both duocarmycin S enantiomers with CYP1A1 reveal orientations correlating with nontoxic metabolites and further drug design optimization could lead to a decrease of CYP1A1 bioactivation. Overall, distinctive structural features present in the two P450 active sites can be useful for improving P450-and thus tissue-selective-bioactivation. Significance Statement Prodrug versions of the natural product duocarmycin can be metabolized by human tissue-specific cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A1 and 2W1 to form an ultrapotent cytotoxin and/or high affinity 2W1 substrates to potentially probe functional activity in situ The current work defines the binding and metabolism by both P450 enzymes to support the design of duocarmycins selectively activated by only one human P450 enzyme.