Now showing items 1-20 of 2017

    • Relating optical coherence tomography to visual fields in glaucoma: structure–function mapping, limitations and future applications

      Denniss, Jonathan; Turpin, A.; McKendrick, A.M. (2018)
      Combining information from optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and visual field testing is useful in the clinical assessment and monitoring of patients with glaucoma. Measurements of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness or neuroretinal rim width taken around the optic nerve head may be related to the visual field using a structure–function map. In this review, the structure–function mapping methods in clinical use are discussed. Typical clinical maps provide a population average, ‘one size fits all’ representation, but in recent years methods for customising structure–function maps to individual eyes have been developed and these are reviewed here. In the macula, visual field stimuli stimulate photoreceptors for which associated retinal ganglion cells are peripherally displaced. Recently developed methods that relate OCT measurements to visual field test locations in the macula are therefore also reviewed. The use of structure–function maps to relate OCT measurements to localised visual field sensitivity in new applications is also explored. These new applications include the selection of visual field test locations and stimulus intensities based on OCT data, and the formal post‐test combination of results across modalities. Such applications promise to exploit the structure–function relationship in glaucoma to improve disease diagnosis and monitoring of progression. Limitations in the validation and use of current structure–function mapping techniques are discussed.
    • Archaeology and modern reflections on death

      Dayes, Jennifer E.; Faull, C.; Büster, Lindsey S.; Green, Laura I.; Croucher, Karina T. (2018-09-22)
    • From Plastered Skulls to Palliative Care: What the Past Can Teach Us About Dealing with Death

      Büster, Lindsey S.; Croucher, Karina T.; Dayes, Jennifer E.; Green, Laura I.; Faull, C. (2018)
      Modern, advanced healthcare detects and monitors long-term and life-limiting illness more comprehensively than ever before. However, death is now often considered medical failure, and is a virtually taboo topic of conversation in daily life. At a time when the societal relevance of archaeology is under scrutiny more than ever before, the AHRC-funded Continuing Bonds Project – a collaboration between archaeology and palliative care – explores the potential of the past to promote discussion. Not only does archaeology illuminate the diversity of practice surrounding death, the past provides a safe, distanced platform for considering death, dying and bereavement today. Through archaeological and ethnographic case studies, health and social care professionals and students consider topics such as place, choice and identity, in both personal and professional life. This article examines participant responses to a variety of archaeological material and presents post-workshop reflections which demonstrate the success of archaeology in opening up conversations and increasing confidence in discussing this most enduring and problematic of life events.
    • Determination of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and their mode of origin, in urban soils from Leeds (UK)

      Hamed, Heiam A. Mohamed; Hale, William H.G.; Stern, Ben (2018-06)
      This study aims to determine the concentration of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils from Leeds in order to determine what the factors are controlling their distribution and abundances. Soil samples were collected across an area from Leeds. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) was used to identify and quantify PAHs in the soil samples with the aid of PAH external standards. The results showed the highest concentrations of total PAHs in sample L8 (1344 ng/g) taken from an area located near a parking site and road in Leeds and the lowest total concentration of the 16 PAHs in sample L16 (87 ng/g) taken from a private garden. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene AN/(AN + PH), fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene FLU/(PY+FLU) and benzo[a]anthracene to 228 (BaA/228) implied that the PAHs pollution originated from pyrogenic, biomass and petroleum combustion in the samples which were collected from Leeds city.
    • Control of the stereochemistry of C14 hydroxyl during the total synthesis of withanolide E and physachenolide C

      Anees, Muhammad; Nayak, Sanjit; Afarinkia, Kamya; Vinader, Victoria (2018-11)
      The stereochemical outcome of the epoxidation of Δ14–15 cholestanes with mCPBA is controlled by the steric bulk of a C17 substituent. When the C17 is in the β configuration, the epoxide is formed in the α face, whereas if the C17 is trigonal (flat) or the substituent is in the α configuration, the epoxide is formed in the β face. The presence of a hydroxyl substituent at C20 does not influence the stereochemical outcome of the epoxidation.
    • Eicosapentaenoic acid and aspirin, alone and in combination, for the prevention of colorectal adenomas (seAFOod Polyp Prevention trial): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial

      Hull, M.A.; Sprange, K.; Hepburn, T.; Tan, W.; Shafayat, A.; Rees, C.J.; Clifford, G.; Logan, R.F.; Loadman, Paul M.; Williams, E.A.; Whitham, D.; Montgomery, A.A. (2018-11-19)
      Background: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and aspirin both have proof of concept for colorectal cancer chemoprevention, aligned with an excellent safety profile. Therefore, we aimed to test the efficacy of EPA and aspirin, alone and in combination and compared with a placebo, in individuals with sporadic colorectal neoplasia detected at colonoscopy. Methods: In a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial, patients aged 55–73 years who were identified during colonoscopy as being at high risk in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP; ≥3 adenomas if at least one was ≥10 mm in diameter or ≥5 adenomas if these were <10 mm in diameter) were recruited from 53 BCSP endoscopy units in England, UK. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1:1:1) using a secure web-based server to receive 2 g EPA-free fatty acid (FFA) per day (either as the FFA or triglyceride), 300 mg aspirin per day, both treatments in combination, or placebo for 12 months using random permuted blocks of randomly varying size, and stratified by BCSP site. Research staff and participants were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the adenoma detection rate (ADR; the proportion of participants with any adenoma) at 1 year surveillance colonoscopy analysed in all participants with observable follow-up data using a so-called at-the-margins approach, adjusted for BCSP site and repeat endoscopy at baseline. The safety population included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry, number ISRCTN05926847. Findings: Between Nov 11, 2011, and June 10, 2016, 709 participants were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (176 to placebo, 179 to EPA, 177 to aspirin, and 177 to EPA plus aspirin). Adenoma outcome data were available for 163 (93%) patients in the placebo group, 153 (85%) in the EPA group, 163 (92%) in the aspirin group, and 161 (91%) in the EPA plus aspirin group. The ADR was 61% (100 of 163) in the placebo group, 63% (97 of 153) in the EPA group, 61% (100 of 163) in the aspirin group, and 61% (98 of 161) in the EPA plus aspirin group, with no evidence of any effect for EPA (risk ratio [RR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·87 to 1·12; risk difference –0·9%, –8·8 to 6·9; p=0·81) or aspirin (RR 0·99 (0·87 to 1·12; risk difference –0·6%, –8·5 to 7·2; p=0·88). EPA and aspirin were well tolerated (78 [44%] of 176 had ≥1 adverse event in the placebo group compared with 82 [46%] in the EPA group, 68 [39%] in the aspirin group, and 76 [45%] in the EPA plus aspirin group), although the number of gastrointestinal adverse events was increased in the EPA alone group at 146 events (compared with 85 in the placebo group, 86 in the aspirin group, and 68 in the aspirin plus placebo group). Six upper-gastrointestinal bleeding events were reported across the treatment groups (two in the EPA group, three in the aspirin group, and one in the placebo group). Interpretation Neither EPA nor aspirin treatment were associated with a reduction in the proportion of patients with at least one colorectal adenoma. Further research is needed regarding the effect on colorectal adenoma number according to adenoma type and location. Optimal use of EPA and aspirin might need a precision medicine approach to adenoma recurrence.
    • Estimation of contrast sensitivity from fixational eye movements

      Denniss, Jonathan; Scholes, C.; McGraw, P.V.; Nam, S-H.; Roach, N.W. (2018-11)
      Purpose: Even during steady fixation, people make small eye movements such as microsaccades, whose rate is altered by presentation of salient stimuli. Our goal was to develop a practical method for objectively and robustly estimating contrast sensitivity from microsaccade rates in a diverse population. Methods: Participants, recruited to cover a range of contrast sensitivities, were visually normal (n = 19), amblyopic (n = 10), or had cataract (n = 9). Monocular contrast sensitivity was estimated behaviorally while binocular eye movements were recorded during interleaved passive trials. A probabilistic inference approach was used to establish the likelihood of observed microsaccade rates given the presence or absence of a salient stimulus. Contrast sensitivity was estimated from a function fitted to the scaled log-likelihood ratio of the observed microsaccades in the presence or absence of a salient stimulus across a range of contrasts. Results: Microsaccade rate signature shapes were heterogeneous; nevertheless, estimates of contrast sensitivity could be obtained in all participants. Microsaccade-estimated contrast sensitivity was unbiased compared to behavioral estimates (1.2% mean), with which they were strongly correlated (Spearman's ρ 0.74, P < 0.001, median absolute difference 7.6%). Measurement precision of microsaccade-based contrast sensitivity estimates was worse than that of behavioral estimates, requiring more than 20 times as many presentations to equate precision. Conclusions: Microsaccade rate signatures are heterogeneous in shape when measured across populations with a broad range of contrast sensitivities. Contrast sensitivity can be robustly estimated from rate signatures by probabilistic inference, but more stimulus presentations are currently required to achieve similarly precise estimates to behavioral techniques.
    • How effective are primary care pharmacists at running dyspepsia clinics for patients prescribed PPIs?

      Petty, Duncan R.; Allan, J.; Dawson, R.; Silcock, Jonathan (2018-09)
      Introduction As a consequence of the low cost and perceived safety, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed but they can cause longterm adverse effects and are often overprescribed. For most patients PPIs should not be continued long-term as patients can become dependent on PPIs and they are rarely stepped down/off treatment. We aimed to measure whether a dyspepsia review service could help patients on PPIs to step down/off treatment whilst still keeping them symptom free. Methods Pharmacists were provided with training on dyspepsia management. Four general practices were selected. Patients taking a PPI for more than two months were included. A list of exclusion criteria (e.g. active ulcers, newly initiated) was applied. Between six and eight dyspepsia review clinics were run at each site. Patients were booked into a 15-minute consultation. A concordance style consultation was held with clinicians providing information on dyspepsia management and exploring the patients’ ideas, concerns and expectations about stepping down or stepping off treatment. A follow-up audit was performed at four months to determine if patients had remained stepped down/off. An economic evaluation of clinic costs and drugs savings was performed. Results A total of 508 patients were invited to a review; 136 did not attend and 58 were excluded due to not meeting the inclusion criteria, leaving 314 patients reviewed for step-down/step-off. Successful step down/step off was achieved in 257 people (82% of those reviewed). The total cost savings of PPIs was £7,100. The additional cost of alginates was £1,207 giving a net saving on medicines of £5,893 per annum. Set-up costs were £1,194 and staff costs £3,524 to £5,156 giving total running costs, which vary dependent on the Agenda for Change (AfC) grade of pharmacist involved, of £4,720 - £6,351. Conclusion A dyspepsia review clinic is cost-neutral to run but, given that many patients are on polypharmacy, PPI step down might best be considered as part of a holistic medication review clinic.
    • Preventing chemical weapons as sciences converge

      Crowley, Michael J.A.; Shang, Lijun; Dando, Malcolm R. (2018-11)
      Stark illustrations of the dangers from chemical weapons can be seen in attacks using toxic industrial chemicals and sarin against civilians and combatants in Syria and toxic industrial chemicals in Iraq, as well as more targeted assassination operations in Malaysia and the United Kingdom, employing VX and novichok nerve agents, respectively. Concerns about such malign applications of chemical technology are exacerbated by the unstable international security environment and the changing nature of armed conflict, “where borderlines between war, civil war, large-scale violations of human rights, revolutions and uprisings, insurgencies and terrorism as well as organized crime are blurred” (1). It is thus essential that the global community regularly review the nature and implications of developments in chemistry, and its convergence with the life and associated sciences, and establish appropriate measures to prevent their misuse. With the parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) convening a Review Conference to address such issues beginning 21 November 2018, we highlight important scientific aspects (2)
    • Linear free energy relationship analysis of permeability across polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and comparison with human skin permeation in vitro

      Liu, Xiangli; Zhang, K.; Abraham, M.H. (2018-10-15)
      The aim of the present work is to evaluate the similarity between PDMS membranes and human skin in vitro in permeation study by linear free energy relationship (LFER) analyses. The values of the permeability coefficient log Kp (cm/s) under reliable experimental conditions were collected from the literature for a set of 94 compounds including both neutral and ionic species, which cover a broad range of structural diversity. The values of log Kp (cm/s) have been correlated with Abraham descriptors to yield an equation with R2 = 0.952 and SD = 0.38 log units. The established LFER model for log Kp (cm/s) across PDMS membranes showed no close analogy with that through human skin in vitro. A further critical analysis of the coefficients of the LFER models confirmed that the PDMS permeation system is a very poor model for human skin permeation.
    • Predicting the skin-permeating components of externally-applied medicinal herbs: application of a newly constructed linear free-energy relationship equation for human skin permeation

      Zeng, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Xiangli; Chen, M.; Fahr, A.; Zhang, K. (2018-06)
      A linear free-energy relationship (LFER) equation that is able to provide a valid prediction of the skin permeability coefficients (log Kp) of neutral molecules, ions and ionic species has recently been constructed and optimized. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of predicting the skin-permeating components (SPCs) of externally applied herbs using the LFER equation, with Evodiae fructus (EF) taken as a model herb. The log Kp values of the reported chemical components of EF at pH 4.0 were calculated using the LFER equation and their structural descriptors. The results showed that the essential oils, quinolone, acridone and indole alkaloids of EF are more permeable when compared to other main components, such as phenylpropanoids, furoquinoline alkaloids, limonoids and flavonoids. The SPCs of EF were further collected via ex vivo skin permeation experiments, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 80 SPCs were detected, and part of them were tentatively identified based on their empirical molecular formulae and MS/MS spectra. The SPCs are made up of 58 alkaloids, including 23 or more quinolone alkaloids, 14 or more indole alkaloids and 1 acridone alkaloid, and 22 non-alkaloids, including 7 or more essential oils and 1 flavonoid, which is in good agreement with the prediction by the LFER equation. It is suggested that a log Kp of −7.0 may be considered as a borderline, above which are potential SPCs and below which are non-SPCs. Very interestingly, the primary SPCs give a good explanation to the antihypertensive action of externally applied EF. To sum up, the LFER equation can be used to predict the SPCs of externally applied herbs, and thus to narrow the range of their potential effective components and speed up the pharmacological study.
    • Partition of neutral molecules and ions from water to o-nitrophenyl octyl ether and of neutral molecules from the gas phase to o-nitrophenyl octyl ether

      Abraham, M.H.; Acree Jr, W.E.; Liu, Xiangli (2018-02)
      We have set out an equation for partition of 87 neutral molecules from water to o-nitrophenyl octyl ether, NPOE, an equation for partition of the 87 neutral molecules and 21 ionic species from water to NPOE, and an equation for partition of 87 neutral molecules from the gas phase to NPOE. Comparison with equations for partition into other solvents shows that, as regards partition of neutral (nonelectrolyte) compounds, NPOE would be a good model for 1,2-dichloroethane and for nitrobenzene. In terms of partition of ions and ionic species, NPOE is quite similar to 1,2-dichloroethane and not far away from other aprotic solvents such as nitrobenzene.
    • Combined virtual/experimental multicomponent solid forms screening of sildenafil: new salts, cocrystals, and hybrid salt-cocrystals

      Barbas, R.; Font-Bardia, M.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Hunter, C.A.; Prohens, R. (2018)
      New multicomponent solid forms of sildenafil have been discovered by means of a combined virtual/experimental cocrystal screening. Coformer selection of candidates was conducted based on an in silico screening method from a database of more than 2000 organic compounds, and the intensive experimental screen produced 23 new solid forms. Since the 12 coformers chosen have a combination of phenol and carboxylic acid groups, a variety of cocrystals, salts, and hybrid salt-cocrystals were discovered and characterized.
    • The effect of territorial stigmatisation processes on ontological security: A case-study of Bradford politics

      Sullivan, Paul W.; Akhtar, Parveen (2018)
      We investigate the effect of territorial stigmatisation on ontological security through a qualitative case-study of Bradford politics during the 2015 General Election. Territorial stigmatisation and ontological security are important constructs in political geography but there is relatively little research on how territorial stigmatisation effects ontological security in everyday lived experience – in this case, the lived experience of political contests. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, generated three themes and present and analyse these three themes in the form of three ‘created dialogues’ as outlined by Sullivan (2012), with a smaller sample of ten out of thirty of our participants. Drawing on Bakhtin’s (1981) concept of ‘chronotope’ we identity three key effects of territorial stigmatisation on ontological security: i) A negative reputation of ‘parallel societies’ has the potential to create double meanings for the inhabitants of that society; ii) Local reputation enhances ontological security through linking particular places to particular personalities but potentially decreases ontological security for a district as a whole; iii) Everyday lived experiences sometimes acquire charged emotional symbolic significance, which could encourage the reflexive side of ontological security. Our findings went through a positive member-checking process with five of the participants.
    • Klüver-Bucy Syndrome following traumatic brain injury: a systematic synthesis and review of pharmacological treatment from cases in adolescents and adults

      Clay, F.J.; Kuriakose, A.; Lesche, D.; Hicks, A.J.; Zaman, Hadar; Azizi, E.; Ponsford, J.L.; Jayaram, M.; Hopwood, M. (2018)
      Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare clinical presentation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms include visual agnosia, placidity, hyperorality, sexual hyperactivity, changes in dietary behavior, and hypermetamorphosis. The purpose of this article was to identify and synthesize the available evidence from case reports and case series on the treatment profile of KBS among adolescents and adults after TBI. Four bibliographic databases (MEDLINE OVID, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS) were searched for relevant literature. No date or language restrictions were applied. All case reports containing original data on KBS following TBI among adolescents and adults were included. Articles were evaluated, and data were extracted according to predefined criteria. The literature search identified 24 case reports of KBS post-TBI published between 1968 and 2017. Most case subjects were male (70.1%), and the mean age at injury was 25.1 years (range, 13–67 years). Injury to one or both temporal lobes occurred in most cases. Inappropriate sexual hyperactivity was the most common KBS symptom, followed by a change in dietary behavior and hyperorality. Visual agnosia was the least reported. In 50% of cases, the patient fully recovered from KBS. One-half of all participants described pharmacological management; the most common medication prescribed was carbamazepine. Overall, there was a lack of data available on pharmacotherapy initiation and duration. The complex presentation of KBS presents challenges in terms of treatment options. Although overall individuals who were prescribed carbamazepine had positive outcomes, given the reliance on case reports, it is difficult to make a definitive recommendation to guide clinical practice.
    • DOOP Kit, Domestic Bin Or Watery Grave? A Study Investigating Disposal Practices Of Transdermal Drug Delivery Products In Care Homes

      Breen, Liz; Zaman, Hadar; McCulloch, Elizabeth; Isaq, Sabah (2018)
      Background The issue of opioid use and misuse is current and topical at present with reports of opioid epidemics in the USA and the increasing use of opioids in other parts of the world. The New Scientist asserted that America was in the throes of an opioid epidemic with reports of fatalities linked to physical contact with fentanyl. Discussions have progressed from an American focus to speculating on the spread of this issue to UK cities, Glasgow in particular. Safety issues have more recently come to light regarding the physical application and management of specific drug forms e.g. opioid transdermal patches (OTPs). The prescribing, application and safe disposal of OTPs within both healthcare settings and personal dwellings is critical to the effective use of these products. Healthcare professionals have a duty of care and responsibility to ensure the safe application and disposal of OTPs. Aims The aims of this study were to 1) gain insight into current practices of healthcare professionals regarding OTPs (fentanyl and buprenorphine) disposal practices and 2) identify Abstract knowledge and system awareness surrounding the disposal of these products in care home settings. Methods We decided to focus on care homes due to the estimated high prevalence of prescribing of OTPs in these care settings. The study was undertaken by the University of Bradford School of Pharmacy in 2015 and the participant sample focussed on the North of England (UK). Results The findings (based on 56 survey responses) displayed a significant variation in current disposal practices and a lack of specific working policies. We unearthed anomalies in the participants’ knowledge of the active ingredient volume held in depleted patches which, if not disposed of correctly, can lead to harm. This has highlighted the need for more thorough training and education on the safe and effective management of OTPs. Conclusions Further education and training is needed regarding safe disposal practices of OTPs, with the suggestion of pharmacist-led interventions. This will minimise confusion and reinforce safe disposal practices (denaturing products) and support the reduction of unsafe disposal practices (domestic waste or flushing).
    • Investigating human visual sensitivity to binocular motion-in-depth for anti- and de-correlated random-dot stimuli

      Giesel, M.; Wade, A.R.; Bloj, Marina; Harris, J.M. (2018-11)
      Motion-in-depth can be detected by using two different types of binocular cues: change of disparity (CD) and inter-ocular velocity differences (IOVD). To investigate the underlying detection mechanisms, stimuli can be constructed that isolate these cues or contain both (FULL cue). Two different methods to isolate the IOVD cue can be employed: anti-correlated (aIOVD) and de-correlated (dIOVD) motion signals. While both types of stimuli have been used in studies investigating the perception of motion-in-depth, for the first time, we explore whether both stimuli isolate the same mechanism and how they differ in their relative efficacy. Here, we set out to directly compare aIOVD and dIOVD sensitivity by measuring motion coherence thresholds. In accordance with previous results by Czuba et al. (2010), we found that motion coherence thresholds were similar for aIOVD and FULL cue stimuli for most participants. Thresholds for dIOVD stimuli, however, differed consistently from thresholds for the two other cues, suggesting that aIOVD and dIOVD stimuli could be driving different visual mechanisms.
    • Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration

      Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Millar, S. (2018)
      This volume highlights recent studies identifying epigenetic mechanisms as essential regulators of skin development, stem cell activity and regeneration. Chapters are contributed by leading experts and promote the skin as an accessible model system for studying mechanisms that control organ development and regeneration. The discussions contained throughout are of broad relevance to other areas of biology and medicine and can help inform the development of novel therapeutics for skin disorders as well as new approaches to skin regeneration that target the epigenome. Part of the highly successful Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine series, Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration uncovers the fundamental significance of epigenetic mechanisms in skin development and regeneration, and emphasizes the development of new therapies for a number of skin disorders, such as pathological conditions of epidermal differentiation, pigmentation and carcinogenesis. At least six categories of researchers will find this book essential, including stem cell, developmental, hair follicle or molecular biologists, and gerontologists or clinical dermatologists.
    • Effect of transforming growth factor-β2 on biological regulation of multilayer primary chondrocyte culture

      Khaghani, Seyed A.; Akbarova, G.; Soon, C.F.; Dilbazi, G. (2018-12)
      Cytokines are extremely potent biomolecules that regulate cellular functions and play multiple roles in initiation and inhibition of disease. These highly specialised macromolecules are actively involved in control of cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration and adhesion. This work, investigates the effect of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) on the biological regulation of chondrocyte and the repair of a created model wound on a multilayer culture system. Also the effect of this cytokine on cell length, proliferation, and cell adhesion has been investigated. Chondrocytes isolated from knee joint of rats and cultured at 4 layers. Each layer consisted of 2 × 105 cells/ml with and without TGF-β2. The expression of mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β receptors and Smad1, 3, 4, and 7 have been analysed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of different supplementations in chondrocyte cell proliferation, cell length, adhesion, and wound repair was statistically analysed by One-way ANOVA test. Our results showed that the TGFβ2 regulates mRNA levels of its own receptors, and of Smad3 and Smad7. Also the TGF-β2 caused an increase in chondrocyte cell length, but decreased its proliferation rate and the wound healing process. TGF-β2 also decreased cell adhesion ability to the surface of the culture flask. Since, TGF-β2 increased the cell size, but showed negative effect on cell proliferation and adhesion of CHC, the effect of manipulated TGF-β2 with other growth factors and/or proteins needs to be investigated to finalize the utilization of this growth factor and design of scaffolding in treatment of different types of arthritis.
    • Act now to close chemical-weapons loophole

      Shang, Lijun; Crowley, Michael J.A.; Dando, Malcolm R. (2018-10-18)
      As the Fourth Review Conference of the Chemical Weapons Convention meets next month, state parties need to address mounting concerns about the potential development and use of law-enforcement weapons involving chemical agents that act on the central nervous system (CNS).