• Fieldwork at Chapel Road, Fillingham.

      Buckberry, Jo; Hadley, D.M. (2001)
    • Filtration Suppresses Laser-Induced Nucleation of Glycine in Aqueous Solutions

      Javid, Nadeem; Kendall, T.; Burns, I.S.; Sefcik, J. (2016-08-03)
      We demonstrate that nanofiltration of aqueous glycine solutions has a pronounced effect on laser-induced nucleation. Two nucleation regimes were observed in nonfiltered, irradiated solutions under isothermal conditions: a rapid initial regime associated with laser-induced nucleation and a second much slower spontaneous nucleation regime. Filtration of the solutions prior to irradiation greatly suppressed the rapid regime, while the slow regime was similar regardless of filtration or irradiation, for all supersaturations studied. A clear effect of filtration on crystal polymorphism was also observed. Nonfiltered irradiated solutions at a lower supersaturation almost exclusively yielded the α-polymorph, while at higher supersaturations there was significant presence (∼40%) of the γ-polymorph. On the other hand, filtered solutions almost exclusively yielded the α-polymorph of glycine at all supersaturations studied. These surprising results challenge some established ideas about laser-induced nucleation, showing that previously reported laser-induced nucleation phenomena in glycine aqueous solutions can be effectively suppressed by filtration, so that the underlying mechanism is unlikely to be based on molecular scale interactions involving just the solute and the solvent alone. Instead, laser-induced nucleation in this system appears to be related to either colloidal scale solution clusters or foreign solid or molecular impurities that can be removed by nanofiltration.
    • Finding Vikings in the Danelaw

      Buckberry, Jo; Montgomery, Janet; Towers, Jacqueline R.; Müldner, G.; Holst, M.; Evans, J.; Gledhill, Andrew R.; Neale, Naomi; Lee-Thorp, Julia A. (2014-10-10)
      Historical, artefactual and place-name evidence indicates that Scandinavian migrants moved to eastern England in the ninth century AD, settling in the Danelaw. However, only a handful of characteristically Scandinavian burials have been found in the region. One, widely held, explanation is that most of these Scandinavian settlers quickly adopted local Christian burial customs, thus leaving Scandinavians indistinguishable from the Anglo-Saxon population. We undertook osteological and isotopic analysis to investigate the presence of first-generation Scandinavian migrants. Burials from Masham were typical of the later Anglo-Saxon period and included men, women and children. The location and positioning of the four adult burials from Coppergate, however, are unusual for Anglo-Scandinavian York. None of the skeletons revealed interpersonal violence. Isotopic evidence did not suggest a marine component in the diet of either group, but revealed migration on a regional, and possibly an international, scale. Combined strontium and oxygen isotope analysis should be used to investigate further both regional and Scandinavian migration in the later Anglo-Saxon period.
    • Finding Vikings with isotope analysis – the view from wet and windy islands.

      Montgomery, Janet; Grimes, V.; Buckberry, Jo; Evans, J.A.; Richards, Michael P.; Barrett, J.H. (2014)
      Identifying people of exotic origins with isotopes depends upon finding isotopic attributes that are inconsistent with the indigenous population. This task is seldom straightforward and may vary with physical geography, through time, and with cultural practices. Isotopes and trace elements were measured in four Viking Age (8th to 10th centuries A.D.) skeletons from Dublin, Ireland, and three from Westness, Orkney. These were compared with other data from these locations and contemporaneous skeletons from Britain. We conclude that the male skeletons from Dublin have disparate origins, two originating beyond the shores of Ireland, and that the female and two male skeletons from Westness are not indigenous to Orkney. However, the homeland of the female, in contrast to the males, is unlikely to be in Scandinavia.
    • First archaeobotanical plant macro-remain analysis from the Middle Bronze Age wetland settlement of Viverone (Viverone “Emissario” Project: campaign Viv16)

      Herbig, C.; Jennings, Benjamin R. (2019)
      The first archaeobotanical studies of the Middle Bronze Age lakeshore settlement demonstrate the enormous potential of this site for appropriate analyses. On the basis of the well-preserved layers a multitude of plant remains and wide diversity of species are present at this site. Evidence of emmer, spelt, tetraploid naked wheat, hulled barley, peas and broad beans conforms to the basic cultural crop spectrum of the Middle Bronze Age. The wild plants originate from various locations in the direct vicinity and allow an insight into the landscape at that time. Numerous wild plants were intentionally used by the settlers. Fruits gathered include cornelian cherries, hazelnuts, crab apples and a diversity of berries. Furthermore, archaeobotanical analyses support observations already made on site that within the settlement there are at least two functionally different areas. While in section 50/51 the layers contain the remains of daily food preparation, section 7 indicates a link to animal fodder.
    • First episode psychosis patients show impaired cognitive function - a study of a South Asian population in the UK

      Saleem, Majid M.; Harte, Michael K.; Marshall, Kay M.; Scally, Andy J.; Brewin, A.; Neill, Joanna C. (2013)
      Background: Cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia, severely debilitating and untreated by current medication. However, to date there is limited research focusing on the precise nature of the cognitive disturbances at first episode in ethnic populations. Improved understanding of this will allow improved approaches to therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive function with a first episode of psychosis South Asian patients. Methods: Twenty South Asian first episode psychosis patients and 15 healthy South Asian matched controls were recruited. All were second generation South Asian people living in the UK. Subjects who took part in the study completed the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (patient group), the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading and a battery of neuropsychological assessments to assess specific domains of cognition of relevance to Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) (all groups). Results: Results show that first episode patients performed significantly worse than controls across all cognitive domains tested using CANTAB. Significant impairments were found in tests of visual and spatial memory, executive function, working memory, spatial planning and attention. Importantly, a number of cognitive performance indices (visual memory, spatial memory, executive function) were positively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Conclusion: We demonstrate that first episode South Asian patients display significant and specific cognitive deficits with evidence to support an association between negative symptoms and certain cognitive domains at first episode in this patient population.
    • First International Symposium "Epigenetic control of skin development and regeneration": How chromatin regulators orchestrate skin functions.

      Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Westgate, Gillian E.; Tobin, Desmond J. (2013)
      We organized the first International Symposium on Skin Epigenetics at the Centre for Skin Sciences at the University of Bradford (West Yorkshire, UK) on 2nd and 3rd April 2012. The goal of the Symposium was to bring together two research communities—skin and chromatin biologists—and discuss the most important aspects of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that control skin development and regeneration. The symposium was attended by more than 80 participants from countries across Europe, Australia, Japan, Singapore, and USA, and representing academic institutions and industry. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression programs in the skin is a novel trend in research in cutaneous biology, and several landmark papers arising in the field were published recently (reviewed in Botchkarev et al., 2012; Botchkareva, 2012; Frye and Benitah, 2012; Yi and Fuchs, 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). The Symposium program included six Keynote lectures, the inaugural John M. Wood Memorial Lecture, and six sessions that covered major levels of epigenetic regulation.
    • Fish Bones, Isotopes, and Microscopes: A Pilot Study in Applying Analytical Methods to Iron Age Faunal Remains

      Fitzpatrick, Alexandra L. (2019)
      Previous research on the Iron Age in Britain has argued that no fishing occurred during this period in Britain. This argument has now been complicated by large assemblages of fish bones that have been excavated from Iron Age sites in the Northern Isles. Further investigation into this issue became the focus of the author's MSc dissertation research in 2016, specifically on the recently excavated fish bone assemblages from the site of Swandro on Rousay, Orkney. Analytical methods, including stable isotope analysis and scanning electron microscopy, were applied in an attempt to determine how the fish may have been utilised at the site. Results have revealed evidence that could be interpreted as fishing activity and possible consumption by humans at Swandro. This paper disseminates and further examines these results and considers how this particular project is useful as a pilot study in the application of analytical methodologies to problematic faunal remains such as fish, and why this could be important to future zooarchaeological and environmental archaeological research.
    • Fish oil supplementation alters levels of lipid mediators of inflammation in microenvironment of acute human wounds.

      McDaniel, J; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna (Wiley, 2011)
      Chronic wounds often result from prolonged inflammation involving excessive polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity. Studies show that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids found in fish oils generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in numerous inflammatory disease models. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that boosting plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with oral supplementation would alter lipid mediator levels in acute wound microenvironments and reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels. Eighteen individuals were randomized to 28 days of either eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid supplementation (Active Group) or placebo. After 28 days the Active Group had significantly higher plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic (p<0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (p<0.001) than the Placebo Group and significantly lower wound fluid levels of two 15-lipoxygenase products of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, [9- hydroxyoctadecadienoic (HODE) acid (p = 0.033) and15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE) (p = 0.006)], at 24 hours post wounding. The Active Group also had lower mean levels of myeloperoxidase, a leukocyte marker, at 12 hours and significantly more re-epithelialization on Day 5 post wounding. We suggest that lipid mediator profiles can be manipulated by altering polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to create a wound microenvironment more conducive to healing.
    • Fishing, Diet, and Environment in the Iron Age of the Northern Isles

      Fitzpatrick, Alexandra L. (2017-06)
      It has been argued that no fishing occurred during the British Iron Age. However, sites in the Northern Isles have been producing large assemblages of small fish bones, complicating the picture. This project reconsiders this argument by investigating fish bone assemblages excavated from the site of Swandro on Rousay, Orkney. Multiple analytical methods were applied to the assemblages in order to determine the range of species present, the method of capture and treatment of the fish, and their influence on diet. Preliminary work consisted of identifying each individual bone to element and species. Due to the size of the average specimen, scanning electron microscopy was employed to examine samples for any indication of butchery, charring, or digestion. Light isotope analysis was also utilised to determine the effects of fish on the diets of the inhabitants of Iron Age Swandro. Results from these analytical approaches indicated the occurrence of low intensity fishing activity and consumption that had no significant effect on diet. However, intensification in fishing would begin to occur during the Later Iron Age, as evident by a shift in the composition of fish bone assemblages. This project can be considered a pilot study in the successful application of analytical methods to faunal assemblages in order to develop a more detailed interpretation of the environmental aspects of a site.
    • Flash vacuum pyrolysis of stabilised phosphorus ylides. Part 17. Preparation of aliphatic amino acid derived gamma-alkoxycarbonyl-amino-beta-oxo ylides and pyrolysis to give alpha,beta-acetylenic gamma-amino acid and GABA analogues

      Karodia, Nazira; Aitken, R.A.; Massil, T.; Young, R.J. (2002)
      A series of eleven alpha-aminoacyl stabilised phosphorus ylides 9-19 have been prepared by condensation of N-alkoxycarbonyl protected amino acids with Ph3P=CHCO2Et using a carbodiimide peptide coupling reagent. Upon ash vacuum pyrolysis at 600 degreesC, these undergo extrusion of Ph3PO to give the corresponding, alpha,beta-acetylenic gamma-amino esters 21-29, 33 and 34 in moderate yield. In two cases the terminal alkynes 30 and 31 are also formed. The beta-aminoacyl ylide 20 from beta-alanine similarly gives the alpha,beta-acetylenic delta-amino ester 35 upon pyrolysis. Regioselective addition of HBr to the triple bond of one acetylenic ester 25 was observed giving a mixture of E and Z alpha-bromoacrylates 36. Hydrogenation of the N-Cbz acetylenic esters 21-23 and 33 results in N-deprotection and hydrogenation of the triple bond to afford the chiral GABA analogues 37-40 in 70 --> 95% ee as determined by F-19 NMR of their Mosher amides. Fully assigned C-13 NMR spectra of all the ylides and acetylenic ester derivatives are presented.
    • Flicker-Defined Form Stimuli are Minimally Affected by Centre-Surround Lateral Contrast Interactions

      Denniss, Jonathan; McKendrick, A.M. (2016-03)
      Purpose Flicker-defined form (FDF) stimuli have recently been adopted for visual field testing. A key difference between FDF and traditional perimetric stimuli is that the entire display background contains flickering dots. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the perception of FDF stimuli is influenced by lateral interactions involving regions beyond the stimulus border in young healthy observers. Methods Experiment 1 measured the effect of surround size and retinal eccentricity on the detection of the FDF contour. Psychometric functions were collected for surround diameters of 20°, 30° and 40°, and with stimuli centred at eccentricities of 0°, 10° and 20°. Experiment 2 measured the effect of target-surround temporal phase difference on apparent temporal contrast (flicker strength) of the target for both the FDF stimulus and a solid-field stimulus. Psychometric functions were collected for target-surround phase differences of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° and 180°. Results Our results show a mild surround-suppression effect for FDF stimuli that is independent of surround size. Magnitudes of FDF surround suppression were consistent with the reduced temporal contrast energy of the stimulus compared to solid-field stimuli. Conclusion FDF stimuli necessarily have both flickering target and background. Our results suggest that visual field defects outside the target are unlikely to markedly influence the detection and perception of the FDF stimulus. Nevertheless, mild surround suppression of contrast arises for FDF stimuli, hence interactions between the background and the target area may influence FDF results in conditions that alter centre-surround perceptual effects.
    • Floristic composition and environmental determinants of roadside vegetation in North England

      Akbar, K.F.; Hale, William H.G.; Headley, Alistair D.D. (2009)
      The roadside vegetation in some counties of north England (north and west Yorkshire) was studied to determine the community structure according to the British National Vegetation Classification (NVC) and main environmental factors influencing its composition. The data from Phytosociological survey (699 quadrats) and from the physico-chemical analyses of 233 soil samples from 35 sites were obtained. Both the classification (TWINSPAN & MATCH) and ordination programs (Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were used. The roadside vegetation is mainly dominated by few grasses (Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Poa trivialis, Elymus repens, Holcus lanatus) and their associated herbs (Cirsium arvense, Heracleum sphondylium, Urtica dioica). Five NVC Mesotrophic grassland communities (Arrhenatheretum elatioris community MG1, Lolium perenne-Cynosurus cristatus grassland MG6, Lolium perenne leys MG7, Holcus lanatus-Deschampsia cespitosa grassland MG9, Festuca rubra-Agrostis stolonifera-Potentilla anserina grassland MG11) and one Upland Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris-Galium saxatile grassland, U4 were identified which in general, exhibited good fit with the typical NVC units.
    • Floristic composition and environmental determinants of roadside vegetation in North England.

      Akbar, K.F.; Hale, William H.G.; Headley, Alistair D.D. (2011-01-18)
      The roadside vegetation in some counties of north England (north and west Yorkshire) was studied to determine the community structure according to the British National Vegetation Classification (NVC) and main environmental factors influencing its composition. The data from Phytosociological survey (699 quadrats) and from the physico-chemical analyses of 233 soil samples from 35 sites were obtained. Both the classification (TWINSPAN & MATCH) and ordination programs (Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were used. The roadside vegetation is mainly dominated by few grasses (Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Poa trivialis, Elymus repens, Holcus lanatus) and their associated herbs (Cirsium arvense, Heracleum sphondylium, Urtica dioica). Five NVC Mesotrophic grassland communities (Arrhenatheretum elatioris community MG1, Lolium perenne-Cynosurus cristatus grassland MG6, Lolium perenne leys MG7, Holcus lanatus- Deschampsia cespitosa grassland MG9, Festuca rubra-Agrostis stolonifera-Potentilla anserina grassland MG11) and one Upland Festuca ovina- Agrostis capillaris-Galium saxatile grassland, U4 were identified which in general, exhibited good fit with the typical NVC units. Altitude, pH, potassium, sodium and road age were found to be the main variables affecting the roadside vegetation. By relating the floristic composition with ecological characteristics of the roadside verges, three kinds of pattern of variation are observed. The first pattern is related to regional or geographical characteristics and the second pattern of variation exists across the width of the road verges showing a zonal pattern of plant distribution. The third scale of pattern is active at the local level including micro-environmental conditions, e.g., local edaphic variables.
    • Fluorescence resonance energy transfer confirms the bacterial-induced conformational transition in highly-branched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide with vancomycin end groups on binding to Staphylococcus aureus

      Swanson, L.; Rimmer, Stephen; MacNeil, S.; MacNeil, S.; Douglas, C.W.I.; Swindells, K.; Sarker, P. (2014)
      We describe a series of experiments designed to investigate the conformational transition that highly-branched polymers with ligands undergo when interacting with bacteria, a process that may provide a new sensing mechanism for bacterial detection. Fluorescent highly-branched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)s (HB-PNIPAM) were prepared by sequential self-condensing radical copolymerizations, using anthrylmethyl methacrylate (AMMA) and fluorescein-O-acrylate (FA) as fluorescent comonomers and 4-vinylbenzyl pyrrole carbodithioate as a branch forming monomer. Differences in reactivity necessitated to first copolymerize AMMA then react with FA in a separate sequential monomer feed step. Modifications of the chain ends produced vancomycin-functional derivatives (HB-PNIPAM-Van). The AMMA and FA labels allow probing of the conformational behaviour of the polymers in solution via fluorescence non-radiative energy transfer experiments. It was shown that interaction of this polymer's end groups with Staphylococcus aureus induced a macromolecular collapse. The data thus provide conclusive evidence for a conformational transition that is driven by binding to a bacterium.
    • Fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of the bacteria-mineral interface: adsorption of lipopolysaccharides to silica and alumina

      El-Taboni, F.; Caseley, Emily; Katsikogianni, Maria G.; Swanson, L.; Swift, Thomas; Romero-González, M.E. (American chemical society, 2020-01)
      We present here a quantification of the sorption process and molecular conformation involved in the attachment of bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), extracted from Escherichia coli, to silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) particles. We propose that interfacial forces govern the physicochemical interactions of the bacterial cell wall with minerals in the natural environment, and the molecular conformation of LPS cell wall components depends on both the local charge at the point of binding and hydrogen bonding potential. This has an effect on bacterial adaptation to the host environment through adhesion, growth, function, and ability to form biofilms. Photophysical techniques were used to investigate adsorption of fluorescently labeled LPS onto mineral surfaces as model systems for bacterial attachment. Adsorption of macromolecules in dilute solutions was studied as a function of pH and ionic strength in the presence of alumina and silica via fluorescence, potentiometric, and mass spectrometry techniques. The effect of silica and alumina particles on bacterial growth as a function of pH was also investigated using spectrophotometry. The alumina and silica particles were used to mimic active sites on the surface of clay and soil particles, which serve as a point of attachment of bacteria in natural systems. It was found that LPS had a high adsorption affinity for Al2O3 while adsorbing weakly to SiO2 surfaces. Strong adsorption was observed at low pH for both minerals and varied with both pH and mineral concentration, likely in part due to conformational rearrangement of the LPS macromolecules. Bacterial growth was also enhanced in the presence of the particles at low pH values. This demonstrates that at a molecular level, bacterial cell wall components are able to adapt their conformation, depending on the solution pH, in order to maximize attachment to substrates and guarantee community survival.
    • Fluorescent 7-Diethylaminocoumarin Pyrrolobenzodiazepine conjugates: Synthesis, DNA-Interaction, Cytotoxicity and Differential Cellular Localization.

      Wells, G.; Suggitt, Marie; Coffils, M.; Baig, M.A.H.; Howard, P.W.; Loadman, Paul M.; Hartley, J.A.; Jenkins, Terence C.; Thurston, D.E. (2008)
      The pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs) are a class of DNA minor groove binding agents that react covalently with guanine bases, preferably at Pu-G-Pu sites. A series of three fluorescent PBD¿coumarin conjugates with different linker architectures has been synthesized to probe correlations between DNA binding affinity, cellular localization and cytotoxicity. The results show that the linker structure plays a critical role for all three parameters. Graphical abstract A series of three fluorescent PBD¿coumarin conjugates with different linker architectures has been synthesized to probe correlations between DNA-binding affinity, cellular localization and cytotoxicity.
    • Fluorescent and colorimetric molecular recognition probe for hydrogen bond acceptors

      Pike, Sarah J.; Hunter, C.A. (2017-11)
      The association constants for formation of 1 : 1 complexes between a H-bond donor, 1-naphthol, and a diverse range of charged and neutral H-bond acceptors have been measured using UV/vis absorption and fluorescence emission titrations. The performance of 1-naphthol as a dual colorimetric and fluorescent molecular recognition probe for determining the H-bond acceptor (HBA) parameters of charged and neutral solutes has been investigated in three solvents. The data were employed to establish self-consistent H-bond acceptor parameters (β) for benzoate, azide, chloride, thiocyanate anions, a series of phosphine oxides, phosphate ester, sulfoxide and a tertiary amide. The results demonstrate both the transferability of H-bond parameters between different solvents and the utility of the naphthol-based dual molecular recognition probe to exploit orthogonal spectroscopic techniques to determine the HBA properties of neutral and charged solutes. The benzoate anion is the strongest HBA studied with a β parameter of 15.4, and the neutral tertiary amide is the weakest H-bond acceptor investigated with a β parameter of 8.5. The H-bond acceptor strength of the azide anion is higher than that of chloride (12.8 and 12.2 respectively), and the thiocyanate anion has a β value of 10.8 and thus is a significantly weaker H-bond acceptor than both the azide and chloride anions.
    • Fluorescent cell tracer dye permits real-time assessment of re-epithelialization in a serum-free ex vivo human skin wound assay

      Nasir, N.A.M.; Paus, R.; Ansell, David M. (2019-01)
      Ex vivo wounded human skin organ culture is an invaluable tool for translationally relevant preclinical wound healing research. However, studies incorporating this system are still underutilized within the field because of the low throughput of histological analysis required for downstream assessment. In this study, we use intravital fluorescent dye to lineage trace epidermal cells, demonstrating that wound re‐epithelialization of human ex vivo wounds occurs consistent with an extending shield mechanism of collective migration. Moreover, we also report a relatively simple method to investigate global epithelial closure of explants in culture using daily fluorescent dye treatment and en face imaging. This study is the first to quantify healing of ex vivo wounds in a longitudinal manner, providing global assessments for re‐epithelialization and tissue contraction. We show that this approach can identify alterations to healing with a known healing promoter. This methodological study highlights the utility of human ex vivo wounds in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms of human skin repair and in evaluating novel therapies to improve healing outcome.
    • Following historical 'tracks' of hair follicle miniaturisation in patterned hair loss: Are elastin bodies the forgotten aetiology?

      Rushton, D.H.; Westgate, Gillian E.; Van Neste, D.J. (Wiley, 2022-02)
      Pattern Hair Loss (PHL) is a chronic regressive condition of the scalp, where follicular miniaturisation and decreased scalp hair coverage occurs in affected areas. In all PHL cases there is a measurable progressive shortening of the terminal hair growth duration, along with reduced linear growth rates. In both genders, PHL initially shows an increase in short telogen hairs ≤30mm in length, reflecting a cycle completion of under six months in affected terminal hair follicles. To understand the miniaturisation process, we re-examine the dynamics of miniaturisation and ask the question, 'why do miniaturised hair follicles resist treatment?' In the light of recent developments in relation to hair regeneration, we looked back in the older literature for helpful clues 'lost to time' and reprise a 1978 Hermann Pinkus observation of an array of elastin deposits beneath the dermal papilla following subsequent anagen/telogen transitions in male balding, originally described by Arao and Perkins who concluded that these changes provide a "morphologic marker of the entire biologic process in the balding scalp". Thus, we have reviewed the role of the elastin-like bodies in hair pathology and we propose that alterations in elastin architecture may contribute to the failure of vellus-like hair reverting back to their terminal status and may indicate a new area for therapeutic intervention.