• BradPhys to BradViz or from archaeological science to heritage science

      Gaffney, Vincent L.; Cuttler, R.; Bates, R.; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Ch'ng, E.; Wilson, A. (2016)
      Archaeology is a broad church and its role as a “two culture” discipline is frequently cited. This position at the interface of the arts and sciences remains central to archaeological activity but there have been significant changes in the structure of archaeology and its relationship to society overall. The growth of heritage science, in particular, is driving change and development within archaeology at a national and international level. This paper discusses these developments in relation to the author's own research trajectory and discusses the significance of such change.
    • Brain Pseudomorphs: Grey Matter, Grey Sediments, and Grey Literature

      O'Connor, Sonia A. (2009-06-29)
      This is a volume of papers presented in honour of the archaeologist and palaeopathologist, Don Brothwell. The eclectic mix reflects the diversity of Brothwell's career over four decades, and the influence that he has had upon many aspects of archaeological science. The papers are linked together by the theme of "people" - our evolution, our bodily remains and burial practices, and our behaviour with respect to other animals (particularly as it may be inferred from animal bones). Many of the contributions were presented at an international conference held in 1999 at the University of York to celebrate Don Brothwell's career in the year of retirement.
    • Branched amphotericin functional poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide): an antifungal polymer

      Swift, Thomas; Caseley, Emily; Pinnock, A.; Shepherd, J.; Shivshetty, N.; Garg, P.; Ian Douglas, C.W.; MacNeil, S.; Rimmer, Stephen (2021-01-27)
      Branched poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was functionalized with Amphotericin B (AmB) at the chain ends to produce an antifungal material. The polymer showed antifungal properties against AmB-sensitive strains of Candida albicans, Fusarium keratoplasticum and Aspergillus flavus (minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 500 µg ml−1) but was not effective against an AmB resistant strain of C. albicans nor against Candida tropicalis. The polymer end groups bound to the AmB target, ergosterol, and the fluorescence spectrum of a dye used as a solvatochromic probe, Nile red, was blue shifted indicating that segments of the polymer became desolvated on binding. The polymer was less toxic to corneal and renal epithelial cells and explanted corneal tissue than the free drug. Also, the polymer did not induce reactive oxygen species release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, nor did it cause a substantial release of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β (at 0.5 mg ml−1).
    • Breaching the skin's barrier to drugs.

      Barry, Brian W. (2004)
      A novel approach for identifying synergistic mixtures of skin penetration enhancers promises to transform development of transdermal products, including patches.
    • Breaking with Tradition. Cultural Influences for the decline of the Circum-Alpine region lake-dwellings

      Jennings, Benjamin R. (2014)
      Over 150 years of research in the Circum-Alpine region have produced a vast amount of data on the lakeshore and wetland settlements found throughout the area. Particularly in the northern region, dendrochronological studies have provided highly accurate sequences of occupation, which have correlated, in turn, to palaeoclimatic reconstructions in the area. The result has been the general conclusion that the lake-dwelling tradition was governed by climatic factors, with communities abandoning the lakeshore during periods of inclement conditions, and returning when the climate was more favourable. Such a cyclical pattern occurred from the 4th millennium BC to 800 BC, at which time the lakeshores were abandoned and never extensively re-occupied. Was this final break with a long-lasting tradition solely the result of climatic fluctuation, or were cultural factors a more decisive influence for the decline of lake-dwelling occupation? Studies of material culture have shown that some of the Late Bronze Age lake-dwellings in the northern Alpine region were significant centres for the production and exchange of bronzework and manufactured products, linking northern Europe to the southern Alpine forelands and beyond. However, during the early Iron Age the former lake-dwelling region does not show such high levels of incorporation to long-distance exchange systems. Combining the evidence of material culture studies with occupation patterns and burial practices, this volume proposes an alternative to the climatically-driven models of lake-dwelling abandonment. This is not to say that climate change did not influence those communities, but that it was only one factor among many. More significantly, it was a combination of social choice to abandon the shore, and subsequent cultural developments that inhibited the full scale reoccupation of the lakes.
    • Brewing and stewing: the effect of culturally mediated behaviour on the oxygen isotope composition of ingested fluids and the implications for human provenance studies.

      Brettell, Rhea C.; Montgomery, Janet; Evans, J.A. (2012)
      'Small beer', 'wort drinks' and 'pottage' may have been regularly consumed by children during the Medieval Period. This culturally mediated behaviour could have affected the oxygen isotope composition of their water intake beyond that which is accommodated in the current conversion equations used in archaeological studies to assess environmental origins. Experimental data shows that brewing may increase the δ18O value of ale by 1.3‰ over that of the initial water ('liquor') used, boiling water to make hot drinks raises the δ18O value of the fluid consumed by ~0.4‰ and slow-cooking using a large stew pot results in an increase in the oxygen isotope composition of the 'pottage' by an average of 10.2‰ after 3 hours of cooking. Thus, if ingested fluids included 20% from ale, 10% from 'teas' and 20% from stews (the latter increased from -7.0‰ to +3.2‰ by three hours of cooking) then the overall effect on the calculated drinking water value from the tooth enamel will be +2.3‰ .
    • Bridging the gap between typology and chronology. British Neolithic and bronze Age Ceramics 3000-2000BC

      Gibson, Alex M. (2015)
      The paper attempts to explain the chronological gap between middle Neolithic and Early Bronze Age ceramics and examines the processes by which the latter could have developed from the former despite an 800 year hiatus.
    • Bridging the TB data gap: in silico extraction of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis diagnostic test results from whole genome sequence data

      Ng, K.C.S.; Ngabonziza, J.C.S.; Lempens, P.; de Jong, B.C.; van Leth, F.; Meehan, Conor J. (2019-08)
      Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely employed in routine laboratories and national surveys for detection of rifampicinresistant (RR)-TB. However, as next-generation sequencing technologies have become more commonplace in research and surveillance programs, RDTs are being increasingly complemented by whole genome sequencing (WGS). While comparison between RDTs is difficult, all RDT results can be derived from WGS data. This can facilitate continuous analysis of RR-TB burden regardless of the data generation technology employed. By converting WGS to RDT results, we enable comparison of data with different formats and sources particularly for low- and middle-income high TB-burden countries that employ different diagnostic algorithms for drug resistance surveys. This allows national TB control programs (NTPs) and epidemiologists to utilize all available data in the setting for improved RR-TB surveillance. Methods: We developed the Python-based MycTB Genome to Test (MTBGT) tool that transforms WGS-derived data into laboratory-validated results of the primary RDTs—Xpert MTB/RIF, XpertMTB/RIF Ultra, GenoType MDRTBplus v2.0, and GenoscholarNTM+MDRTB II. The tool was validated through RDT results of RR-TB strains with diverse resistance patterns and geographic origins and applied on routine-derived WGS data. Results: The MTBGT tool correctly transformed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data into the RDT results and generated tabulated frequencies of the RDT probes as well as rifampicin-susceptible cases. The tool supplemented the RDT probe reactions output with the RR-conferring mutation based on identified SNPs. The MTBGT tool facilitated continuous analysis of RR-TB and Xpert probe reactions from different platforms and collection periods in Rwanda. Conclusion: Overall, the MTBGT tool allows low- and middle-income countries to make sense of the increasingly generated WGS in light of the readily available RDT.
    • A Brief Consideration of the Later Prehistoric Appearance and Possible Significance of the Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) in the Covesea Caves of North-East Scotland

      Fitzpatrick, Alexandra; Bond, Julie M.; Büster, Lindsey S.; Armit, Ian (2020-01)
      This Short Note describes the distribution and composition of the great auk assemblage found within the Covesea Caves, and discusses its significance.
    • "Bringing heaven down to earth”: The purpose and place of religion in UK food aid

      Power, M.; Small, Neil A.; Doherty, B.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Pickett, K.E. (2017)
      This paper uses data from a city with a multi-ethnic, multi-faith population to better understand faith-based food aid. It aims to understand what constitutes faith-based responses to food insecurity; compare the prevalence and nature of faith-based food aid across different religions; and explore how community food aid meets the needs of a multi-ethnic, multi-faith population. Methodology The study involved two phases of primary research. In phase one, desk-based research and dialogue with stakeholders in local food security programmes was used to identify faith- based responses to food insecurity. Phase two consisted of 18 semi-structured interviews involving faith-based and secular charitable food aid organizations. Findings The paper illustrates the internal heterogeneity of faith-based food aid. Faith-based food aid is highly prevalent and the vast majority is Christian. Doctrine is a key motivation among Christian organizations for their provision of food. The fact that the clients at faith-based, particularly Christian, food aid did not reflect the local religious demographic is a cause for concern in light of the entry-barriers identified. This concern is heightened by the co-option of faith-based organizations by the state as part of the ‘Big Society’ agenda. Originality This is the first academic study in the UK to look at the faith-based arrangements of Christian and Muslim food aid providers, to set out what it means to provide faith-based food aid in the UK and to explore how faith-based food aid interacts with people of other religions and no religion.
    • Bringing in the sheaves: farming Intensification in post-broch Iron Age

      Bond, Julie M.; Guttmann, E.B.; Simpson, I.A. (2004)
    • British Iron Age chariot burials of the Arras culture: a multi-isotope approach to investigating mobility levels and subsistence practices

      Jay, Mandy; Montgomery, Janet; Nehlich, O.; Towers, Jacqueline R.; Evans, J. (2013)
      Iron Age chariot burials in the UK are rare and restricted in their distribution. Historically it has been suggested that their Arras culture affinities with Continental Europe, particularly with the Paris basin in France, may be indicative of migration. The majority of them are found on chalk and the putative source region is also chalk. This has meant that a study using only strontium isotopes to identify mobile individuals is problematic. Here we present a range of isotope ratio data (strontium, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and sulphur) for seven chariot burials from Wetwang, Garton Station and Kirkburn. The majority of them are of men and women who were born and lived locally, although the individual from Kirkburn is likely to have spent his childhood elsewhere. They do, however, differ quite subtly from others in the local population, probably in their relationship to a local land-use pattern operating between two distinct biospheres.
    • Brochs, Economy and Power

      Dockrill, Stephen J. (2002)
      Brochs are one of the ultimate expressions of regional diversity in the British Iron Age, a geographically restricted, monumental and complex variant of the roundhouse. They are the best-preserved Iron Age dwellings in Britain if not Europe, often requiring the visitor to duck to avoid the lintel as they enter the building, and yet too often they have been sidelined as local curiosities in wider narratives of the period. This trend has been bucked in recent years in the specialist literature, with more theoretically-informed interpretations; here Armit sets out to place broch studies before a wider audience.
    • Bronze Age deposition and Iron Age decapitation at the Sculptor's Cave, Covesea

      Armit, Ian; Schulting, R.J.; Knüsel, Christopher J. (2010)
    • Bronze Age trade and exchange through the Alps: inflluencing cultural variability?

      Jennings, Benjamin R. (2015)
      After more than 3500 years of occupation in the Neolithic and Bronze Age, the many lake-dwellings’ around the Circum-Alpine region ‘suddenly’ came to an end. Throughout that period alternating phases of occupation and abandonment illustrate how resilient lacustrine populations were against change: cultural/environmental factors might have forced them to relocate temporarily, but they always returned to the lakes. So why were the lake-dwellings finally abandoned and what exactly happened towards the end of the Late Bronze Age that made the lake-dwellers change their way of life so drastically? The new research presented here draws upon the results of a four-year-long project dedicated to shedding light on this intriguing conundrum. Placing a particular emphasis upon the Bronze Age, a multidisciplinary team of researchers has studied the lake-dwelling phenomenon inside out, leaving no stones unturned, enabling identification of all possible interactive socio-economic and environmental factors that can be subsequently tested against each other to prove (or disprove) their validity. By re-fitting the various pieces of the jigsaw a plausible, but also rather unexpected, picture emerges.
    • Buddlejol, a new alpha-chymotrypsin inhibitor from Buddleja asiatica

      Khan, F.A.; Khan, N.M.; Khan, H.U.; Khan, S.; Ali, N.; Ahmad, S.; Maitland, Derek J. (2015)
      Buddlejol (1), a new sterol, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the antispasmodic plant Buddleja asiatica along with stigmasterol (2), lignoceric acid (3), taraxerol (4) and alpha-amyrin (5), respectively. The structure of Buddlejol (1) was established as (24S)-stigmast-5,22-diene-7 beta-ethoxy-3 beta-ol by spectral analysis and comparison with closely related structures. Buddlejol revealed to be a competitive inhibitor of chymotrypsin with the Ki value of 10.60 A mu M as indicated by Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots and their re-plots against its chymotrypsin inhibition assay, while the other compounds showed less inhibitory potential. The bioassay-guided isolation was stimulated by the preliminary cytotoxic screening of various fractions of B. asiatica.
    • Building multi-component crystals from cations and co-crystals: the use of chaperones

      Bukenya, Shamim; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J.; Skyner, Rachael; Whitaker, Darren A.; Seaton, Colin C. (2013)
      Ternary crystalline complexes consisting of both salts and ionic co-crystals have been created through the crystallisation of the binary co-crystal 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid–4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid with group 1 or ammonium cations. The size and charge density of the cation can be used to adjust the protonation level and local geometry of the acid pair. The selectivity and coordination geometry of the chaperone cation may be further adjusted by the inclusion of a crown ether to reduce the number and location of potential binding sites.
    • Building up co-crystals: structural motif consistencies across families of co-crystals

      Seaton, Colin C. (MDPI, 2021-01)
      The creation of co-crystals as a route to creating new pharmaceutical phases with modified or defined physicochemical properties is an area of intense research. Much of the current research has focused on creating new phases for numerous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to alter physical properties such as low solubilities, enhancing processability or stability. Such studies have identified suitable co-formers and common bonding motifs to aid with the design of new co-crystals but understanding how the changes in the molecular structure of the components are reflected in the packing and resulting properties is still lacking. This lack of insight means that the design and growth of new co-crystals is still a largely empirical process with co-formers selected and then attempts to grow the different materials undertaken to evaluate the resulting properties. This work will report on the results of a combination of crystal structure database analysis with computational chemistry studies to identify what structural features are retained across a selection of families of co-crystals with common components. The competition between different potential hydrogen bonding motifs was evaluated using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and this was related to the commonality in the packing motifs when observed. It is found while the stronger local bonding motifs are often retained within systems, the balance of weaker long-range packing forces gives rise to many subtle shifts in packing leading to greater challenges in the prediction of final crystal structures.
    • Burial in later Anglo-Saxon England c. 650-1100 AD

      Buckberry, Jo; Cherryson, A. (2010)
      The overarching theme of the book is differential treatment in death, which is examined at the site-specific, settlement, regional and national level. More specifically, the symbolism of conversion-period grave good deposition, the impact of the church, and aspects of identity, burial diversity and biocultural approaches to cemetery analysis are discussed.
    • Burials and Beakers: Seeing Beneath the Veneer in Late Neolithic Britain.

      Gibson, Alex M. (Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 2004)